- A place where slaves were permitted to
Now called Louis Armstrong Park
- Ring shout - a cluster of individuals
- moving in a circular pattern.
Comes from an African ritual ceremony.
- New Orleans City Council - 1817
- designated Congo Square as the official site for slave dances.
- Other parts of the country did not
- permit this and outlawed African elements in the music of slaves.
- The Latin-Catholic influence on society
- was more tolerant.
John Hendricks- Freddie Freeloader
Significant in jazz history
Used collective improvisation
- Emancipation of traditional roles in
- the rhythm section.
- Little distinction between soloist and
- Pianoless quartet - Trumpet, bari sax,
- bass, drums.
- Main focus was on counterpoint, with no
- harmonic instrument present.
This is an exhaustive
- study of scales and patterns. It is based on dividing the octave into various
- numbers of equal parts. This study is not coming from any specific idiom such
- as jazz or classical but may very well be used in application to any idiom. It
- is a written enharmonically, no key signatures and can be used by all
Smooth Jazz – definitions
Quiet refined “Funk” music.
Just as easy to hear or ignore.
- Another definition–Instrumental pop
- Fuzak – combination of
- fusion and muzak.
Best known practitioners are:
But is it jazz?
What to consider?
Where are the CDs found? In which bin?
Outsides missing the distinctions.
Insiders missing the commonalities.
- Consider the characteristics of the
- music, not just the reaction of listeners.
- There has long been a reluctance among
- musicians and purist fans to include within the jazz category any watered-down
- variants of a style that is derived from the jazz tradition.
- Notes that are
- "foreign" to a given key, and the free utilization of altered notes.,
- Notes that lend color to the sound of a chord or scale. (from Chroma).
Influences of French impressionism
- bill evans Highly
- influenced by French impressionist Maurice Ravel. (Harmonically
12 bars, 3 sections of 4
32 bars long. 4 sections of
8 bars each
Such Sweet Thunder
billy strayhorn wrote this with elligton
Star Crossed Lovers
billy strayhorn wrote this with elligton
- Straight 8th note subdivision - does
- not swing!
- 2 types
Afro-Cuban Jazz compaired to Brazilian
Bass notes are seldom on the beat.
Salsa, mambo, merengue.
- Combination on duple
- and triple rhythms
- Bossa Nova, Samba
- - Dance Rhythms.
Bass notes are almost always on the beat.
Very light and airy.
Others capitalized on success of the bossa nova.
Main composer - Antonio Carlos Jobim
- Made famous by jazz tenor player
- Stan Getz
Fusion – roots and origins
- a combination (borrowing) of the
- popular rock idiom of the 1960's with the jazz idiom.
- rock borrowed jazz harmonies, &
- jazz borrowed the complex rhythms of
- rock and funk.
is Jazz fusion Jazz-Rock?
- Should be called jazz-funk because the
- "rock" influences on fusion came from James Brown, Sly Stone, and
- other Motown groups, not from the Rolling Stones and the Beatles
- Early examples include Miles Davis –
- Filles de Kilimanjaro
Distinguishing Jazz From
Rock & Funk
Rock & Funk typically have:
shorter phrase lengths
less frequent chord changes
less complexity of melody & harmony
- less improvisation, especially in
more repetition of melodic phrases
- more repetition of short chord
simpler drum patterns
- more pronounced repetition of drum and
- bass figures.
- Bruebec (dave bruebec - west coast- Blue Rondo A La
Composer, bandleader, & pianist.
- important engagement at the “Cotton Club”
Played for floor shows
Name comes from the sound of the music.
Dominated by the saxophone.
Drug use was heavy in the bebop crowd.
- Tremendous split between musicians and
- the public.
- Musicians tried to rise from
- entertainer to artist.
- Many compositions were written over the
- changes of other popular tunes.
- Preferred instrumentation was the small
- combo instead of big band.
- Less emphasis was placed on
- arrangements in bop.
Average tempo was faster in bop.
- Clarinet was rare in bop. Rhythm guitar
- was rare.
- Display of instrumental virtuosity was
Bop improvisation was more complex
Melodies were more complex in bop.
- Harmonies were more complex in bop
- (Much more chromatic)
Comping was more prevalent than stride style and simple, on-the-beat chording
Surprise was more highly valued in bop.
- Bop was a more agitated style than
Difficulties of the jazz waltz
Pretty Eyes – 1965
Good example of a jazz waltz
- with jazz waltz is ¾ time which was hard to get to swing at first
Form is AABA – 64 measures, not 32
Big Band instrumentation
Big Band became the standard group.
- Consolidation of the rhythm section to piano,
- bass, drums, and perhaps guitar, tuba
- and banjo died out
Equal Contribution style
- Bill evans - This trio used more of an
- equal contribution style, rather than piano solo with bass & drums
- (as compared to Oscar)
- trio used more equal contribution rather than piano
- solo w/ bass and drums accompaniment