Jazz Final 2

  1. Congo Square
    • A place where slaves were permitted to
    • dance.

    Now called Louis Armstrong Park

    • Ring shout - a cluster of individuals
    • moving in a circular pattern.

    Comes from an African ritual ceremony.

    • New Orleans City Council - 1817
    • designated Congo Square as the official site for slave dances.

    • Other parts of the country did not
    • permit this and outlawed African elements in the music of slaves.

    • The Latin-Catholic influence on society
    • was more tolerant.
  2. Vocalese
    John Hendricks- Freddie Freeloader
  3. Weather Report
    Significant in jazz history

    Used collective improvisation

    • Emancipation of traditional roles in
    • the rhythm section.

    • Little distinction between soloist and
    • accompanist.

    Important names

    Joe Zawinul

    • Miroslav
    • Vitous
  4. Chet Baker-Mulligan
    • - no piano –
    • counterpoint

    • Pianoless quartet - Trumpet, bari sax,
    • bass, drums.

    • Main focus was on counterpoint, with no
    • harmonic instrument present.

    Bernie's Tune

    Walkin Shoes
  5. Slonimsky Thesaurus
  6. This is an exhaustive
    • study of scales and patterns. It is based on dividing the octave into various
    • numbers of equal parts. This study is not coming from any specific idiom such
    • as jazz or classical but may very well be used in application to any idiom. It
    • is a written enharmonically, no key signatures and can be used by all
    • instruments.
  7. Smooth Jazz – definitions
    Quiet refined “Funk” music.

    Just as easy to hear or ignore.

    • Another definition–Instrumental pop
    • music.

    • Fuzak – combination of
    • fusion and muzak.

    Best known practitioners are:

    Kenny G

    George Benson

    Bob James

    But is it jazz?

    What to consider?

    Where are the CDs found? In which bin?




    Outsides missing the distinctions.

    Insiders missing the commonalities.

    • Consider the characteristics of the
    • music, not just the reaction of listeners.

    • There has long been a reluctance among
    • musicians and purist fans to include within the jazz category any watered-down
    • variants of a style that is derived from the jazz tradition.
  8. Chromatic
    • Notes that are
    • "foreign" to a given key, and the free utilization of altered notes.,
    • Notes that lend color to the sound of a chord or scale. (from Chroma).
  9. Influences of French impressionism
    • bill evans Highly
    • influenced by French impressionist Maurice Ravel. (Harmonically
  10. 12 bars, 3 sections of 4
    bars each
  11. 32 bars long. 4 sections of
    8 bars each
    AABA form
  12. Such Sweet Thunder
    billy strayhorn wrote this with elligton
  13. Star Crossed Lovers
    billy strayhorn wrote this with elligton
  14. Latin Jazz
    • Straight 8th note subdivision - does
    • not swing!

    • 2 types
    • Brazilian
    • Afro-Cuban
  15. Afro-Cuban Jazz compaired to Brazilian
    More intense

    More rhythmic

    Bass notes are seldom on the beat.

    Salsa, mambo, merengue.

    • Combination on duple
    • and triple rhythms
  16. Brazilian Jazz
    • Bossa Nova, Samba
    • - Dance Rhythms.

    Bass notes are almost always on the beat.

    Very light and airy.

    Others capitalized on success of the bossa nova.

    Main composer - Antonio Carlos Jobim

    • Made famous by jazz tenor player
    • Stan Getz
  17. Jazz-Rock Fusion
    Fusion – roots and origins

    • a combination (borrowing) of the
    • popular rock idiom of the 1960's with the jazz idiom.

    • rock borrowed jazz harmonies, &
    • improvisation

    • jazz borrowed the complex rhythms of
    • rock and funk.
  18. is Jazz fusion Jazz-Rock?
    • Should be called jazz-funk because the
    • "rock" influences on fusion came from James Brown, Sly Stone, and
    • other Motown groups, not from the Rolling Stones and the Beatles

    • Early examples include Miles Davis –
    • Filles de Kilimanjaro
  19. Distinguishing Jazz From

    Rock & Funk
    Rock & Funk typically have:

    shorter phrase lengths

    less frequent chord changes

    less complexity of melody & harmony

    • less improvisation, especially in
    • accompaniments

    more repetition of melodic phrases

    • more repetition of short chord
    • progressions

    simpler drum patterns

    • more pronounced repetition of drum and
    • bass figures.
  20. Supermetric
    • Bruebec (dave bruebec - west coast- Blue Rondo A La
    • Turk-)
  21. Duke Ellington
    Composer, bandleader, & pianist.

    • Historically
    • important engagement at the “Cotton Club”
    • (1927-31)

    Played for floor shows
  22. Bebop characteristics
    Name comes from the sound of the music.

    Dominated by the saxophone.

    Drug use was heavy in the bebop crowd.

    • Tremendous split between musicians and
    • the public.

    • Musicians tried to rise from
    • entertainer to artist.

    • Many compositions were written over the
    • changes of other popular tunes.

    • Preferred instrumentation was the small
    • combo instead of big band.

    • Less emphasis was placed on
    • arrangements in bop.

    Average tempo was faster in bop.

    • Clarinet was rare in bop. Rhythm guitar
    • was rare.

    • Display of instrumental virtuosity was
    • higher.

    Bop improvisation was more complex

    Melodies were more complex in bop.

    • Harmonies were more complex in bop
    • (Much more chromatic)

    Comping was more prevalent than stride style and simple, on-the-beat chording

    Surprise was more highly valued in bop.

    • Bop was a more agitated style than
    • swing.
  23. Difficulties of the jazz waltz
    Pretty Eyes – 1965

    Good example of a jazz waltz

    • Problem
    • with jazz waltz is ¾ time which was hard to get to swing at first

    Form is AABA – 64 measures, not 32
  24. Big Band instrumentation
    Big Band became the standard group.

    • Consolidation of the rhythm section to piano,
    • bass, drums, and perhaps guitar, tuba
    • and banjo died out
  25. Equal Contribution style
    • Bill evans - This trio used more of an
    • equal contribution style, rather than piano solo with bass & drums
    • accompaniment.
    • (as compared to Oscar)

    • trio used more equal contribution rather than piano
    • solo w/ bass and drums accompaniment
Card Set
Jazz Final 2
Be able to say something important about each of these items.