level 2

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  1. What is pre load?
    Pressure exerted when the ventricles stretch at the end of diastolic volume / start of systole (stroke volume)
  2. What is after load?
    Squeeze at end of systolic resistance, ventricular pressure at end of systole (wall stress / resistance)
  3. What is the calculation for carbonic acid?
    CO2 + H2O + carbonic anhydrase (enzymes)= H2CO3 = H+ + HCO3-
  4. What is tidal volume?
    Amount of air moved during normal inspiration or expiration. (500mls)
  5. What is Inspiratory Reserve Volume?
    Amount of air that can be forcefully inspired after normal tidal volume.
  6. What is Expiratory Reserve Volume?
    Amount of air that can be forcefully expired after expiration of the normal tidal volume.
  7. What is Vital Capacity?
    • Maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after a maximum inspiration
    • Sum of the:
    • - Tidal Volume
    • - Inspiratory Reserve Volume
    • - Expiratory Reserve Volume
    • 4800 mls.
  8. Name the 6 Coronary veins.
    • 1. Coronary Sinus
    • 2. Great Cardiac vein
    • 3. Middle Cardiac vein
    • 4. Small Cardiac vein
    • 5. Posterior Cardiac vein
    • 6. Anterior Cardiac vein
  9. What is Collateral Circulation?
    • Alternative pathways for blood supply in the myocardium.
    • occurs between branches of the left and right coronary arteries.
    • Anastomoses (connection between 2 or more blood vessels).
  10. What part of the heart does the left coronary artery supply?
    • left atrium
    • interventricular septum
  11. Name 4 branches of the left coronary artery.
    • 1. Circumflex branch
    • 2. Anterior descending branch
    • 3. Left marginal branch
    • 4. Posterior left ventricular branch.
  12. What are Cardiac Cells / Pacemaker Cells?
    have excellent conductive and electrical impulse generational properties despite being muscle they have minimal contractibility.
  13. Which part of the conduction pathway in the heart reflects the QRS complex?
    ventricle depolarisation
  14. What is lung capacity?
    • Total volume of air the lungs can hold
    • The sum of:
    • Tidal volume
    • Inspiratory reserve volume
    • Expiratory reserve volume
    • Residual volume
  15. How is MAP calculated?
    • Systolic + (2xdiastolic)/3
    • or pulse pressure /3 + diastolic
  16. The right coronary artery supplies blood to?
    • Right atrium
    • Portions of the right and left ventricles
  17. What are the 2 forces that oppose lung (alveoli) collapse?
    • Surfactant
    • Interpleural pressure
  18. An agonist does what?
    An agonist produces an effect it may be stimulatory or it may inhibitory
  19. What is an antagonist?
    An antagonist does not produce any physiological effect itself. It blocks the receptor site.
  20. What is Pharmacodynamics?
    The study of effects of medications and their mechanisms of action.
  21. How is CO2 transported?
    • 7% is dissolved in plasma
    • 23% in haemoglobin
    • 70% bicarbonate ions in RBC
  22. What is pharmacokinetics?
    • The study of how medications entre the body, reach their sites of action and are eliminated.
    • Enter,
    • Movement
    • Elimination
  23. The lower airway consists of?
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Bronchial tree
    • Alveoli
    • Lungs
  24. Which bronchi is straighter, shorter and wider?
  25. What is stroke volume?
    • The amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during a single beat.
    • approx. 70mls in resting adult
  26. The upper airway consists of?
    • Nose
    • Nasal cavity
    • Pharynx - nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
  27. What is bioavailability?
    The amount of medication that reaches the target cells.
  28. What are the 2 forces that facilitate lung collapse?
    ie; pulling inwards.
    • Surface tension
    • Elastic recoil
  29. What are the branches of the right coronary artery?
    • Right marginal branch
    • Posterior interventricular (descending branch)
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level 2
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