1. Proactive interference
    prior learning can interfere with recall of newer information
  2. Retroactive interference
    new learning can interfere with the recall of older information
  3. positive transfer
    • sometimes old learning can facilitate new learning (e.g., knowing
    • Latin can make it easier to learn Spanish)
  4. Motivated
    People unknowingly revise their memories
  5. Repression
    • A defense
    • mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from
    • consciousness.

    • Yet
    • increasing numbers of memory researchers think repression rarely, if ever,
    • occurs.
  6. Misinformation
    • Incorporating misleading information into one's memory
    • of an event. People later find it nearly
    • impossible to discriminate between memories of real and suggested events.
    • Even imagining events can lead to false memories
  7. Source
    amnesia (or source misattribution)--
    • Attributing an event to the wrong source that we
    • experienced, heard, read, or imagined (misattribution).
    • Whether
    • memories are accurate or not, people express similar levels of confidence
  8. Are memories of abuse repressed or
    • Many psychotherapists believe that early childhood sexual abuse results in repressed memories.
    • However, other psychologists question such beliefs and think that such memories may be
    • constructed.
  9. False Memory Syndrome
    A condition in which a person’s identity and

    • relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of a
    • traumatic

    experience, which is sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists
  10. Loftus’ research
    shows that if false memories (lost at the mall or drowned in a lake) are
    implanted in individuals, they ______ their memories.
    construct (fabricate)
  11. ways on Improving Memory
    • 1.Study
    • repeatedly to boost long-term recall.

    • 2.Spend
    • more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material.

    • 3.Make
    • material personally meaningful.

    • 4.Use
    • mnemonic devices:

    • §associate
    • with peg words — something already stored

    • §make up a
    • story

    • §chunk —
    • acronyms

    • 5.Activate
    • retrieval cues — mentally recreate the situation and mood.

    • 6.Recall
    • events while they are fresh — before you encounter misinformation.

    • 7.Minimize
    • interference:

    • 1.Test your
    • own knowledge.

    • 2.Rehearse
    • and then determine what you do not yet know.
Card Set
Memory 2nd pt