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  1. Indentured Servants
    Indentured servants were usually white adult males who bound themselves to labor in the colonies for a fixed number of years in order to secure their freedom. Each person a wealthy plantation owner sponsored they could get 50 acres of land (max 1000).

    • Some indentured servants had their contract of service worked out with waiting American colonists who would be their masters for four to seven years. Others, upon arrival, were bought and sold much in the same manner as slaves.
    • Indentured servants had few rights. They could not vote. Without the permission of their masters, they were not allowed to marry, to leave their houses or travel, nor buy or sell anything. In the 1600s, most indentured servants were put to work in the tobacco fields of Virginia and Maryland. This was hard manual labor under the grueling hot summer sun, under which Europeans were not accustomed to working.Most indentured servants who survived the frrst four to seven years in America were freed. The master was required (depending upon the rules of the colony) to provide his former servant with the following: clothing, two hoes, three barrels of corn, and fifty acres of land.
  2. Trade and Navigation Acts
    • The Navigation Acts of 1660 and 1696 restricted American trade in the following ways:
    • 1. Only British ships could transport imported and exported goods from the colonies.
    • 2. The only people who were allowed to trade with the colonies had to be British citizens.
    • 3. Commodities such as sugar, tobacco, and cotton wool which were produced in the colonies could be exported only to British ports.
    • These acts aroused great hostility in the American colonies. The Navigation Acts were finally revoked in 1849 after Britain supported the policy of free trade.
  3. Writs of Asssistance
    Allowed customs agents to search any building or ship for contraband without a specific warrant.
  4. Sugar Act (1764)
    It was a modified version of the Sugar and Molasses Act (1733). Colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors. It put tight regulations on American trade, and provided for jury-less trials for accused smugglers.The Sugar Act reduced the rate of tax on molasses from six pence to three pence per gallon, while Grenville took measures that the duty be strictly enforced. The act also listed more foreign goods to be taxed including sugar, certain wines, coffee, pimiento, cambric and printed calico, and further, regulated the export of lumber and iron.
  5. Tea Act (1773)
    The Tea Act, passed by Parliament, would launch the final spark to the revolutionary movement in Boston. The act was not intended to raise revenue in the American colonies, and in fact imposed no new taxes. It was designed to prop up the East India Company which was floundering financially and burdened with eighteen million pounds of unsold tea. This tea was to be shipped directly to the colonies, and sold at a bargain price. The Townshend Duties were still in place, however, and the radical leaders in America found reason to believe that this act was a maneuver to buy popular support for the taxes already in force. The direct sale of tea, via British agents, would also have undercut the business of local merchants.
  6. The Stamp Act (1765)
    The Stamp Act was Parliament's first serious attempt to assert governmental authority over the colonies. Great Britain was faced with a massive national debt following the Seven Years War. The act put a tax on legal documents and taxed newspapers, almanacs, playing cards, and even dice. All of those items had to carry a stamp that the tax had been paid. This act led to riots in NYC, Newport, and Charleston.
  7. Declaratory Act (1766)
    The English Parliament repealed the Stamp Act and at the same time signed the Declaratory Act. This document stated that Parliament had the right "to bind" the colonies "in all cases whatsoever." It is important in history because it stopped the violence and rebellions against the tax on stamps. Also, it restarted trade with England, which had temporarily stopped as a defiant reaction to the Stamp Act.
  8. Proclamation of 1763 (1763)
    A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
  9. Boston Port Act
    An Intolerable Act imposed upon Boston in 1774, leader of the rebellions, in which their port was closed until damages were paid for and order was reestablished; restrictions were placed on town meetings and conspirators were sent to Britain for trial.
  10. Intolerable Act (1774)
    Imposed in response to the Boston Tea Party; closed Boston Harbor to trade, removed democratic elements from colonial government in Massachusetts, inhibited westward expansion by extending Québec's borders. Consisted of five acts. Boston Port Act, Administration of Justice Act, Massachutes Government Act, Quartering Act, and Quebec Act.
  11. Quartering Act (1765)
    Provided that Great Britain would house its soldiers in America first in barracks and public houses, but if its soldiers outnumbered the housing available, would quarter them anywhere where there is space; requiring any inhabitants to provide them with food and alcohol, and providing for fire, candles, vinegar, salt, bedding, and utensils for the soldiers without paying. This act was finally repealed in 1770. It was reinstated in June 1774 as part of the Intolerable Acts.
  12. Townshend Acts (1767)
    Townshend persuaded Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts. These acts put a light import duty on such things as glass, lead, paper, and tea. The acts met slight protest from the colonists, who found ways around the taxes such as buying smuggled tea. Due to its minute profits, the Townshend Acts were repealed in 1770, except for the tax on tea. The tax on tea was kept to keep alive the principle of Parliamentary taxation.
  13. Currency Act (1764)
    Stopped colonial printing of paper money & forced colonists to pay in gold and silver
  14. Mayflower Compact
    The Mayflower Compact is often cited as the first example of self-government in the Americas. The Pilgrims, having arrived at a harbor far north of the land that was rightfully theirs, signed the Mayflower Compact to establish a "civil body politic" under the sovereignty of James I.

    (1620) The first governing document of the Plymouth Colony. Agreement signed by 41 of the more than 100 passengers that stated the men agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best intrest of all members of the colony. As the colonists failed to land in the Virginia territory as had been originally planned, the indentured servents argued that they were free from their bond. This document was created to establish a government and prevent this from occuring. This agreement set the precedent for later docuemnts outlining comonwealth rule. The Mayflower Compact is often regarded as the foundation of the Constitution of the United States.
  15. Roger Williams
    A dissenter, Roger Williams clashed with Massachusetts Puritans over the issue of separation of church and state. After being banished from Massachusetts in 1636, he traveled south, where he founded the colony of Rhode Island, which granted full religious freedom to its inhabitants.
  16. Great Puritan Migration
    (1620-1640)The Puritan migration to New England was very marked in its effects in the two decades from 1620 to 1640, after which it declined sharply for a while. The term Great Migration usually refers to the migration in this period of English settlers, primarily Puritans to Massachusetts and the warm islands of the West Indies. They came in family groups, rather than as isolated individuals and were motivated chiefly by a quest for freedom to practice their Puritan religion. May refer more generally to the Puritan migration of approximately 70,000 refugees from England to what is now the Northeastern United States, the Chesapeake Bay area, and the Caribbean during the 1630s. (including the Winthrop Fleet of 1630 wherein 1,000 passengers migrated from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony)
  17. New England Confederation
    New England colonists formed the New England Confederation in 1643 as a defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch. The colonists formed the alliance without the English crown's authorization.
  18. Freedom of Consciences
    Is the freedom to have opinions on a fact, and have viewpoints or thought that are different than another person's.
  19. Jonathan Edwards
    (1733-1735) He initiated the Great Awakening with a series of sermons, especially "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"and argued that God was rightfully angry with sinnersHe believed you can be saved by God's grace with repentance.
  20. Halfway Covenant
    (1662) This Puritan doctrine responded to the declining religious fervor of second and third generation Puritans by providing partial church membership for the children and grandchildren of church members. Puritan preachers hoped that this plan would maintain some of the church's influence in society.
  21. Salem Witch Trials
    In 1692, several girls in Salem, Massachusetts, accused their neighbors of witchcraft. More than 100 people were tried as witches, and 19 women and one man were executed. Puritan minister Cotton Mather eventually helped stop the trials and executions.

    (1692) Hysteria ran through the village of Salem, Massachusetts, as witchcraft suspects were arrested and imprisoned, some ultimately executed. A special court was then set up by the governor of Massachusetts. Between June and September, over one hundred people had been accused with 19 people, mostly women, being executed. By October, the hysteria subsides, remaining prisoners are released and the special court is dissolved.
  22. City on a Hill
    Biblical ideal, invoked by John Winthrop, of a society governed by civil liberty (where people did only that which was just and good) that would be an example to the world.
  23. William Penn
    Penn, an English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.
  24. Dominion of New England
    Created by royal authority, imposed from London. Embracing at first all New England, it was expanded 2 years laer to include New York and East and West Jersey. The dominion also aimed at bolsteing colonial defense in the event of was with the Indians. It was designed to promote urgently needed efficiency in the administration of the english Navigation Laws. They sought to stitch Enlgland's overseas possessions more tightly to the motherland by throttling American trade with countries not ruled by the English crown. Like colonial peoples everywhere, the Americans chafed at such confinements and smuggling became an increasingly common and honorable occupation. At the head of the dominion was Sir Edmund Andros.;, 1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros
  25. Proprietary Colonies
    Proprietary colonies were founded by a proprietary company or individual and were controlled by the proprietor.
  26. Royal Colonies
    Royal (or crown) colonies were formed by the king, so the government had total control over them.
  27. Charter Colonies
    Charter colonies were founded by a government charter granted to a company or a group of people. The British government had some control over charter colonies.
  28. Peter Zenger Trial
    Arrested in 1794 for printing false stories of the governor of New York, Zenger won case which was a landmark victory for freedom of the press in America.
  29. King Phillips War
    Massasoit's son (Mediacom) forged a pan-Indian alliance against the swiftly spreading English settlements; he mounted a series of coordinated assaults on English villages throughout New England; Frontier settlements were especially hard hit, and refugees fell back toward the relative safety of Boston; when the war was over, 52 Puritan towns had been attacked, and 12 destroyed entirely; hundreds of colonists and many more Indians lay dead; his wife and son were sold into slavery; he was captured, beheaded, and drawn and quartered; his head was carried on a pike back to Plymouth, where it was mounted on grisly display for years, in 1675
  30. Georger Whitefield
    Whitefield succeeded John Wesley as leader of Calvinist Methodists in Oxford, England, major force in revivalism in England and America. His journey to the colonies helped spark Great Awakening in 1738. Everyone in the colonies loved to hear him preach of love and forgiveness because he had a different style of preaching. This led to new missionary work in the Americas in converting Indians and Africans to Christianity, as well as lessening the importance of the old clergy.
  31. Great Awakening
    The First Great Awakening was a time of religious fervor during the 1730s and 1740s. The movement arose in reaction to the rise of skepticism and the waning of religious faith brought about by the Enlightenment. Protestant ministers held revivals throughout the English colonies in America, stressing the need for individuals to repent and urging a personal understanding of truth.
  32. Thomas Hobbes
    (1588-1679) English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings who were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish . He wrote "Leviathan" and believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society.
  33. Mercantilism
    European government policy of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries designed to promote overseas trade between a country and its colonies and accumulate precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with their motherland country. Sought to export more than the country imported. "For the good of the Mother Country"
  34. Bacon's Rebellion
    (1676) A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land. Nathaniel Bacon, a Virginia planter, led a group of 300 settlers in a war against the local Native Americans. When Virginia's royal governor, William Berkley, questioned Bacon's actions, Bacon and his men looted and burned Jamestown. Bacon's Rebellion manifested the increasing hostility between the poor and wealthy in the Chesapeake region.
  35. Harvard College
    The first American college, established in 1636 by Puritan theologians who wanted to create a training center for ministers. The school was named for John Harvard, a Charleston minister, who had left it his library and half his estate.
  36. Middle Passage
    Middle segment of the forced journey that slaves made from Africa to America throughout the 1600's; it consisted of the dangerous trip across the Atlantic Ocean; many slaves perished on this segment of the journey.
  37. Phyllis Wheatly
    The first American poet to be published, and the first African American woman and she helped create the genre of African American Literature.She was made an American slave at 7 but was taught to read and write.
  38. Purtians
    The Puritans were a Protestant group aiming to purify the Anglican Church. In the early 1600s, the Puritans suffered religious persecution in England and emigrated to the Americas. The first group of Puritans established the Massachusetts Bay Colony in Boston. From Boston, Puritan influence in North America spread throughout the region of New England and with it came a focus on family life and a pious restraint of passion.
  39. Pilgrims
    The Pilgrims were a group of English Separatists who had originally sought refuge in the Netherlands. In 1620, they sailed to Plymouth in the Mayflower and established the colony of Plymouth Plantation.
  40. Separatist
    The Separatists were English Protestants who would not accept allegiance in any form to the Church of England. One Separatist group, the Pilgrims, founded Plymouth Plantation and went on to found other settlements in Rhode Island and elsewhere in New England.
  41. House of Burgesses
    The House of Burgesses, established in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619, is considered to be the first representative government in the New World. It consisted of 22 representatives from 11 districts of colonists. Controlled by the FFV.
  42. Anne Hutchinson
    Anne Hutchinson was a dissenter in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who caused a schism in the Puritan community. Eventually, Hutchinson's faction lost out in a power struggle for the governorship. She was expelled from the colony in 1673 and traveled southward with a number of her followers, establishing the settlement of Portsmouth, Rhode Island.
  43. William Bradford
    Govenor of plymouth plantation from 1621-1657.
  44. French and Indian War
    The French and Indian War in North America (1754-1763) mirrored the Seven Years War in Europe (1756-1763). English colonists and soldiers fought the French and their Native American allies for dominance in North America. England's eventual victory brought England control of much disputed territory and eliminated the French as a threat to English dominance in the Americas.
  45. John Locke
    English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property. Wrote Two Treatises on Government as justification of Glorious Revolution and end of absolutism in England. He argued that man is born good and has rights to life, liberty, and property. To protect these rights, people enter social contract to create government with limited powers. If a government did not protect these rights or exceeded its authority, Locke believed the people have the right to revolt. The ideas of consent of the governed, social contract, and right of revolution influenced the United States Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. He also laid the foundations for criticism of absolute monarchy in France.
  46. Iroquios Confederacy
    A powerful group of native americans in the eastern part of the United States made up of five nations: Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, and Oneida.
  47. Headright System
    Established by Virginia Company, each settler received a single headright (50 acres) of land, encouraged family groups to migrate together because it meant larger landholdings for the family, any settler who paid passage for another immigrant would get an additional headright for each new arrival - the rich began importing laborers.
  48. Salutary Neglect
    Throughout the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the English government did not enforce those trade laws that most harmed the colonial economy. The purpose of salutary neglect was to ensure the loyalty of the colonists in the face of the French territorial and commercial threat in North America. The English ceased practicing salutary neglect following British victory in the French and Indian War.
  49. Albany Plan
    (1754) A proposal formed by Benjamin Franklin, when delegates from Pennsylvania, Maryland, New York and New England met in Albany, (established concept of colonial unity), here they tried to negotiate a treaty with the Iroquois, by setting up a general government that would manage relations with Indians, but the French and Indian war was already breaking out and no one in the colonial assembly approved it. The plan called for the colonies to unify in the face of French and Native American threats. The delegates approved the plan, but the colonies rejected it for fear of losing too much power. The Crown did not support the plan either, as it was wary of too much cooperation between the colonies.
  50. James Oglethorpe
    Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
  51. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
    The frist written constitution in American history written by Hartford settlers. It established a representative government consisting of legislature elected by popular vote and governor chosen by legislature.
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APUSH 1607-1763
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