NICU Clinical Prep Terms

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  1. Prenatal
    • PN
    • existing or occurring before birth or during pregnancy
  2. Perinatal
    Relating to the period shortly before and after birth; from 20-29th week of gestation to 1-4 weeks after birth
  3. Postnatal
    Occurring after birth, with reference to the newborn
  4. Para
    • P
    • # of pregnancies that have progressed to 20+ weeks at delivery, can be stillborn or alive
  5. Antepartum
    • AP
    • Refers to the period of pregnancy prior to the onset of labor
  6. Gravida
    • Gravid, G
    • Prego woman
  7. Prolonged Membrane Rupture, Premature PROM
    • Rupture of the membrane of the amniotic sace and chorion more than 1 hr before the onset of labor, with contractions, effacement and dilation
  8. When is PROM considered prolonged?
    when it occurs more than 18-24 hrs before labor
  9. Premature Infant
    • Premie, Neonate
    • one usually born after the 20th completed week and before full term
    • weights 500-2499 g at birth
  10. Full term Infant
    • Term baby
    • Born after 40 weeks gestation
  11. Post Term infant
    • Post Dates
    • An infant born after the 42nd week of gestation
  12. Low Birth Weight
    • LBW
    • Infant whose weight is less than 2500 g
    • (5lbs 8 oz) at birth
  13. Very Low Birth Weight
    • VLBW
    • An Infant weighting 1500 g (3lbs 5 oz ) or less at birth
  14. Small for gestational age
    • SGA
    • An Infant whose size is below the 10th percentile for gestational age
  15. Large for gestational age
    • LGA
    • An infant whose size is about the 9th percentile for gestational age
  16. Intrauterine Growth Retardation
    • IUGR
    • Occurs when the newborn baby is at or below the 10th weight percentile for this or her age (in weeks)
  17. Gestational Diabetic Mother
    • GDM
    • A condition in which women without previous dx of diabetes exhibits high blood glucose levels during pregnancy.  Usually during the 3rd trimester
  18. Bulb Suction
    • bulb
    • used to irrigate external orifices....auditory or nasal openings
  19. Brown fat
    Highly vascular specialized fat found in the newborn that provides more heat than other fat when metabolized
  20. Cold Stress
    Occurs at temps less than 50 F varying with chill factor, wetness, protection from wind
  21. Neutral Theramal Environment
    Environment in which body temp is maintained without an increase in metabolic rate or oxygen
  22. Radiant Warmer
    • warmer
    • Body warming device to provide heat to the body.  It helps to maintain the temp of the baby and limit the metabolism rater.
    • Open try for baby to lay in with heater mounted over head
  23. Isolette
    • Incubator
    • Used for premie infants to provide controlled temp and humidity and oxygen supply
  24. Crib
    • OC, open crib
    • has high enclosing slatted sides
  25. Umbillical Artery Catheter
    and Umbillical Venous Catheter
    • UAC or UVC
    • Long thin plastic tubes that travel from the stump of a newborn babys umbilical cord into the large vessels near the heart.  Provides quick access to the central circulation of premies
  26. Low Stimulation
    • Low Stim Baby
    • ???  Definition/Description unable to find
  27. Developmental Stimulation
    • Developmental Stim
    • Increase interaction btwn baby and surround....books, games, etc...
  28. Kangaroo Care
    • kangarooing
    • Skin to skin contact btwn infants and their parents
  29. Failure to thrive
    • FTT
    • Indicate insufficient weight gain or inappropriate weight loss
  30. Circumcision
    • circ
    • surgical removal of the foreskin from the human penis
  31. Hyperbilirubinemia
    • hyperbili
    • excessive amounts of bilirubin in the blood
  32. ABO Blood incompatability
    • ABO incompatability
    • mild type of haemolytic disease in babes.  RBCs are broken down more quickly than usual which can cause jaundice, anemia or even death
  33. Jaundice, Kernicterus
    • "baby looks yellow"
    • Jaundice-obvious
    • Kernicterus-staining of brain tissue caused by unconjugated bilirubin in the brain.  Can cause encephalopathy
  34. Biliburin Conjugation
    • conjugated bili
    • Albumin-bound bilirubin that's conjugated in the liver by UDPGT enzyme.  Excted in the bile
  35. Phototherapy
    • "the lights"
    • most common treatment for jaundice.  Infants put under special lights causing the bilirubin in the skin to absorb the light and change in to water soluble products that can be excreted in bile and urine
  36. Necrotizing enterocolitis
    • NEC
    • Inflammation of the intestines that can lead to necrosis of intestinal mucosa
  37. Tropic Feeds
    Very small feedings designed to help the GI tract mature....AKA minimal enteral feedings
  38. Oral Gastric Feeds
    • Gavage
    • a soft small catheter is inserted through the nose or mouth to provide intermittent or continuous feedings.  Usually started prior to oral feedings for preterm infants
  39. Premature infant feeding protocol: continuous NG feeds, bolus NG feeds, oral feeding
    • teaching the infant to feed, pump feeds, "Corpac" feeds, "nippling"
    • TPN until infant can tolerate enteral feeding.  Start minimal enteral feeding, usually through gavage.  Bolus feedings more normal pattern.  Functional gag reflex to start oral feedings
  40. Oral stimulation, oral exercises
    • Oral stim
    • Providing a pacifier provides positive stimulation and help associate comfort with sucking
  41. Medium chain triglyceride oil
    • MCT, additive
    • Additive that's rapidly absorbed in the body.  Ingredient in parenteral nutritional emulsions
  42. Human Milk Fortifier
    • Breast milk additive
    • Contains nutrients, especially minerals that are needed for proper bone development in low birth weight babies.
  43. Congenital Heart Defect
    • CHD
    • Type of birth defect...can cause left to right shunt or right to left shunt
  44. Patent Ductus Arteriosis
    • PDA, "duct"
    • Caused by failure of fetal ductus arteriosus to close completely after birth.  Normally closes 24-72 hr. after birth
  45. Retrolental Fibroplasia, Retinopathy of Prematurity
    • ROP
    • Condition in which damage to blood vessels in the retina may cause decrease in vision or even blindness
  46. Cryotherapy
    • cryo
    • Destruction of abnormal tissue using extreme cold-ie removal of warts
  47. Apnea, bradycardia, desaturation
    • AB;s, ABD spells, "blue" spell
    • the cessation of breathing for period of 20 seconds or longer or for shorter times but accompanied by bradycardia or cyanosis
  48. Meconium, Meconium Aspiration
    • MEC, thing, mec, thick mec
    • Earliest stool of an infant made of materials ingested in-utero
    • Mec Aspiration-when meconium is present in a newborn infants lungs during or before delivery causing respiratory problems
  49. Respiratory Distress Syndrome
    Condition caused by insufficient production of surfactant in the lungs, resulting in atelectasis, hypoxia, hypercapnia
  50. Hyaline Membrane Disease
    respiratory distress of newborns, especially premature infants in which a membrane composed of proteins and dead cells lines the alveoli making gas exchange difficult or impossible
  51. Exogenous Surfactant Replacement
    • Exosurf, Surfactant
    • Used to reduce alveolar collapse by decreasing surface tension within the alveoli.  Seen in the hyaline membranes of immature lungs and at the onset of respiratory distress
  52. Oscillation Ventilation
    • "oscillator"
    • mechanical ventilation that uses a constant distending pressure (mean arterial pressure)
    •  with pressure variations oscillating around the MAP at high rates (up to 900 cycles/min)
  53. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
    • CPAP, nasal CPAP, Bubble CPAP
    • Respiratory ventilation used in the treatment of sleep apnea or respiratory failure in newborn infants
  54. High Flow Oxygen
    • high flow
    • humidified high flow nasal airway respiratory support via a nasal cannula
  55. Permissive hypercapnia
    high carbon dioxide in the blood of respiratory insufficient patients in which oxygen has become so difficult that the optimal mode of mechanical ventilation is not capable of exchanging enough carbon dioxide-this is allowed to lower tidal volumes seen in patients with ARDS
  56. Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
    • BPD
    • Chronic lung disorder seen in premies with low birth weight on prolonged mechanical ventilator to treat respiratory distress
  57. Nitric oxide
    • Nitric, NO
    • vasodilator
  58. Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation
    • ECMO
    • Heart and lung bypass.  Treatment that uses pumps to circulate blood through an artificial lung back in to the blood stream of a very ill infant
  59. Intraventricular Hemorrhage
    • IVH
    • Brain bleed in or near the ventricles of the brain, commonly seen in premies due to the tiny fragile blood vessels in their brains.  The burst occurs after birth due to the pressure on these vessels from O2
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NICU Clinical Prep Terms
NICU Clinical Prep Term Sheet with abbreviations
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