Reading Endorsement

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  1. Morphology
    Study of word structures, especially in terms of morphemes. Primarily concerned with the internal structures of words.
  2. Phonics
    A method of teaching reading based on the sounds of letters, groups of letters, and syllables.
  3. Morphological Awarness
    The recognition, understanding, and use of word parts that carry significance.  For example: Root words, prefixes, suffixes, and grammatical inflections are all morphemes which can be added or taken away from a word to alter its meaning.
  4. Phonological Awareness
    The ability to recognize that words are made up of a variety of sound units.
  5. Phonemic Awareness
    Involves an understanding of the ways that sounds function in words, it deals with only one aspect of sound: phoneme.
  6. Phoneme
    The smallest unit of sound in a language that holds meaning. "ball" /b/aw/l/
  7. Word Study
    Phonics + Spelling + Vocabulary Instruction
  8. Morphemes
    A meaningful linguistic unit consisting of a word "dog" or word element -s "dogs" that can't be divided into smaller meaningful parts.
  9. Pre-fix
    A word, letter, or number placed before another.  Add something at the beginning.
  10. These are examples of 
    anti-, de-, dis-, en-, em-, fore-, in-, im-, inter-, mid-, mis-, non-
  11. These are examples of: 
    -able, -al, -ial, -ed, - en, -er, -est, -ful, -ic, -ing, -ly, -s, -es
  12. Suffix
    A letter or group of letters added tot he end of a word or root, serving to form a new word or functioning as an inflectional ending.
  13. Decoding skills
    Skills used to make sense of printed words.  This meaning being able to recognize and analyse a printed word to connect it to the spoken word it represents. These skills include the ability to recognize the basic sounds and sound blends (phonemes) that make up a word, know what it means, recognize it in context and know whether or not it is being used correctly.
  14. Predicting
    To say that something will or might happen in the future.
  15. Anecdotal
    Based on casual observations or indications rather than rigorous or scientific analysis.
  16. Grapheme
    The smallest meaningful contrastive unit in a writing system. A letter of an alphabet.
  17. mnemonic
    a devise such as a pattern of letters, ideas, or associations that assists in remembering something.
  18. IRI (Informal Reading Inventory)
    Individually administered survey designed to help you determine a student's reading instructional needs. Will help assess a student's strengths and needs in: word recognition, word meaning, reading strategies, comprehension.
  19. BRI (Basic Reading Inventory)
    Individually administered Information Reading Inventory (IRI) used to help gather information for instructional decision making in reading.
  20. Fluency
    The ability to read phrases and sentences smoothly and quickly, while understanding them as expressions of complete ideas.
  21. Vocabulary
    All the words of a language. The words known and used by a person. Words that are related to a particular subject.
  22. Comprehension
    The ability to understand what is being read.
  23. Independent reading level
    The level at which a child can read a text on his/her own with ease.
  24. Instructional Reading Level
    The level at which a child needs the support of a teacher, parent, or tutor. 90-95 accuracy, 80% comprehension.
  25. Frustration Reading Level
    Occurs when the accuracy of the reading goes below 90%
  26. Digraph
    Two successive letters that represent a single sound. 'sh' "shoot, 'ay' "say", 'ai "sail", 'a-e', same.
  27. Diphthongs
    In phonetics, a vowel in which there is a noticeable sound change within the same syllable. Dual vowels, that you hear each distinct vowel sound in one syllable.  "out", "bite", "toil"
  28. A suffix that is used for abstract nouns
    -Ion (Such as education, institution, election)
  29. A suffix used for nouns that refer to people or animals.
    -ian (electrician, magician, technician)
  30. -ed past tense can sound like
    • /t/ - missed
    • /d/ - killed
    • /ed/ - waited
  31. Syntex
    The study of the rules that govern the ways in which words combine to form phrases, clauses, and sentences.
  32. Whole Language approach
    Method of teaching children to read by recognizing words as whole pieces of language.  Language should not be broken down into letters and combinations of letters and decoded.
  33. Inflection
    A process of word formation in which items are added to the base form of a word to express grammatical meanings. (-ed = past tense, -s = plural)
  34. Onset
    The part of the words that comes before the vowel; not all words have this. (s-un, s-unshine, s-unny)
  35. Rime
    The part of the word including the vowel that follows the onset. (s-un, s-unshine, s-unny)
Card Set
Reading Endorsement
Flash cards of terms for reading endorsement classes.
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