Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

  1. Thinking, or cognition, refers
    to a process that ....

    psychologists study these.

    • involves knowing, understanding, remembering, problem
    • solving, decision making, and communicating.
  2. Concept
    • The mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people,
    • defined by common features they share.
    • Organized into category
    • hierarchies
  3. Concepts can be formed by
    • Definition

    • But more often—prototype

  4. Prototype
    • A mental image or best example that incorporates all the
    • features we associate with a category
  5. The more closely something matches our prototype...
    the more easily we recognize it as an example
  6. How do we solve problems? *list*
    • Trial and

    • error
    • Algorithm

    • Heuristics

    • insight
  7. Algorithm

    • Step-by-step

    • procedure that guarantees a solution
  8. Heuristics

    Strategy, faster than Algorithm but not garenteed results
  9. insight
    Sometimes we are unaware of using a problem-solving strategy
  10. Obstacles to Problem-Solving
    • —Confirmation
    • bias-- A tendency to search for information
    • that confirms a personal bias.
    • —
    • —Fixation-- An
    • inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective. This impedes problem
    • solving.
  11. Explaining Language Development
    • 1.Skinner (1957, 1985) believed that language development
    • may be explained on the basis of learning principles such as association,
    • imitation, and reinforcement.
  12. Explaining Language Development
    Universal Grammar
    • : Chomsky (1959, 1987)

    • opposed Skinner’s ideas and suggested that the rate of language acquisition is
    • so fast that it cannot be explained through learning principles, and thus most
    • of it is inborn.
  13. Explaining Language Development
    and Critical Periods
    • Well before our first birthday, our brains are
    • discerning word breaks by statistically analyzing which syllables in hap-py-ba-by go together. These
    • statistical analyses are learned during critical periods of child development.
  14. Language Influences Thinking
    • Whorf (1956)

    • suggested that language determines the way we think.
    • For example, he noted

    • that the Hopi people do not have the past tense for verbs. Therefore, the Hopi
    • cannot think readily about the past.
  15. When thinking in images visulizing the outcome stimulation has ____ effect opposed to visualizing the process which has ___ effect
    Little effect, Benificial
  16. Intelligence
    • The

    • ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to
    • new situations
  17. IQ
    • a score

    • once obtained on a particular intelligence test
    • In

    • research studies, intelligence is
    • whatever the intelligence test measures. This tends to be “school smarts.”
  18. Spearman proposed that ____ ____ underlies various
    types of intelligence.

    general intelligence (g)
  19. L. L. Thurstone, a
    critic of Spearman, analyzed his subjects NOT on a single scale of general
    intelligence, but on seven clusters of
    ____ ____ ____
    primary mental abilities
  20. Thurstone's primary mental
    included ...
    • 1.Word Fluency
    • 2.Verbal Comprehension
    • 3.Spatial Ability
    • 4.Perceptual Speed
    • 5.Numerical Ability
    • 6.Inductive Reasoning
    • 7.Memory
  21. True or false
    • Later

    • psychologists analyzed Thurstone’s data and
    • found a weak relationship between these clusters, suggesting some evidence of a
    • g factor.
  22. Emotional Intelligence
    • Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive,

    • understand, and use emotions.
  23. What is wrong with this form of assessing intelligence?
    Image Upload 2
    • The Intelligence Quotient works for children, but not

    • adults.
  24. today’s
    tests compute an intelligence ability score based on the test-taker’s
    relative to others of the same age.
  25. The averagie IQ is...
  26. Aptitude tests
    • are
    • intended
    • to predict your ability to learn a new skill (e.g., college entrance exams)
  27. Achievement tests
    • are
    • intended to reflect what you have already learned.
  28. Standardizing a test involves ....

    • administering the test to
    • a representative sample of future test takers in order to establish a basis for
    • meaningful comparison.
  29. Standardized tests establish a normal distribution of
    scores on a tested population in a bell-shaped pattern called the ___ ___

    normal curve.
  30. In the past 60 years, intelligence scores have risen
    steadily by an average of 27 points.
    This phenomenon is known as the ___ ___

    Flynn effect.
  31. A test is ____when it yields consistent results over
    different test administrations.

  32. Reliability of a test does not ensure validity.

    Validity of a test
    refers to...

    • how
    • well the test measures or predicts
    • what it is supposed
    • to.
  33. A ___ ____ is a self-confirming
    concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.

    stereotype threat
  34. This stereotype threat phenomenon appears in some instances in
    intelligence testing among...

    African-Americans and among women of all colors.
  35. Intelligence
    scores become stable after about ___ years of age.
Card Set
Thinking, Language, and Intelligence