1. lagest gland in the body, over 500 function
  2. has 2 lobes divided by the falciform ligament
  3. has a round ligament and Glisson capsule
  4. how many blood supplies does the liver has
  5. what are the blood supplies to the liver
    • 1. portal vein
    • 2. hepatic artery
  6. the 2 blood suppies to the liver can contain what
    can contain 13% of blood supply at any one time (lot of blood in the liver)
  7. how does the portal vein flow and where does it empty
    portal vein blood flows into large capillaries called sinusoids, then along with blood from the hepatic artery, progresses to the hepatic vein from which it is emptied into the inferior vena cava
  8. liver is innervated by what
    sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
  9. what is the functional unit of the liver
    the liver lobule
  10. what removes bacteria and other foreign substances from the blood
    Kupffer cells
  11. what is the physiology of the liver
    • 1. Carbohydrate metabolism
    • 2. Protein Metabolism
    • 3. Fat Metabolism
    • 4. production of bile salts
    • 5. bilirubin metabolism
    • 6. blood reservoir
  12. what are more physiology of the liver
    • 1. detoxification of endogenous and exogenous substances
    • -ammonia
    • -steroids drugs
    • 2. storage of minerals and vitamins
  13. -glycogen formation and storage
    -glucose formation from glycogen
    carbohydrate metabolism
  14. glucose formation from gycogen
  15. glucose formation from amino acids
    lactic acids
  16. glucose formation from glycerol
  17. what is protein metabolism (protein catabolism and protein synthesis)
    • Albumin
    • alpha and beta globulins
    • clotting factors
    • c reative protein
    • cerulosplasmin
    • enzymes
    • transferrin
  18. with protein metabolism what is needed
    formation of needed amino acids
  19. Fat metabolism in the liver
    • 1. oxidation of fatty acids for energy
    • 2. ketone formation
    • 3. synthesis of cholesterol and phospholipids
    • 4. formation of triglycerides from dietary lipids and excessive dietary carbs. and proteins
    • 5. formation of lipoproteins
  20. Drugs processed by the liver can become toxic in liver patients what should not be given
  21. what should be done in a liver assessment (Health Assessment)
    • -comfort status
    • -nutritional status
    • -fluid and electrolyte status
    • -elimination patterns
    • -energy level
    • -perception, motion and cognition (if ammonia levels are off will be confused)
    • -exposure to toxins
  22. what should be assessed in the physical assessment of liver patients
    • -Jaundice, malnourished, ab enlargement, ascites etc.
    • -palmer erythema
    • -change in secondary sex characteristics
    • -bruises (clotting factors in the liver)
    • -muscle wasting, edema, petechiae
    • -spider agiomas
    • -mental status changes
  23. what diagnostic tests for liver problems
    • -multiple lab tests
    • -abdominal films
    • -barium swallow
    • -endoscopy
    • -ultrasound
    • -CT scans
    • -MRI
  24. what are some other diagnostic tests performed
    • -liver scans in nuclear medicine
    • -Angiography
    • -Liver Biopsy
    • -Paracentesis
    • -peritoneal lavage
  25. what labs will be elevated just because of liver disease and pt. is more likely to bleed
    PT, INR and PTT
Card Set
Summer semester Pavel exam 3