LSW Exam

  1. Accountability
    The duty of a professional to notify the public about its functions and methods and to provide assurances to its consumers that members of the profession meet certain standards of competence.

    It is also the condition of being answerable to the community, to one's consumers or to supervisory groups
  2. Active Crisis State
    The fourth state of a crisis: It is characterized by disequilibrium and involves the following stages: physical and psychological agitation, preoccupation with the events leading to the crisis, and a gradual return to a state of equilibrium.
  3. Administration
    Activities and skills geared toward making staff and processes in an organization operate in a way that achieves desired goals.
  4. Advisory Board
    Their role is to provide information, expert opinion, and recommendations to an organization about how the goals can be achieved.
  5. Advocacy Model
    Model of consultation in which the consultant attempts to contribute to large scale societal change by encouraging an organization's members to accept and acknowledge inherent gender, race, age, and class conflict within the organization.
  6. Anal Stage
    Freud's second stage of psychosexual development (1-3 yrs), when pleasure is centered on the function of elimination.
  7. Anxiety
    According to Freud, a state that results when the ego is unable to reconcile the incompatible demands of the id, superego, and reality. A state of "psychic distress."
  8. Appropriation
    The designation of funds to a specific group, agency or program.
  9. Aversion Therapy
    Behavior therapy technique used to eliminate a maladaptive behavior by pairing the behavior with a real or imagined aversive stimulus.
  10. Awareness
    The goal of Gestalt psychology andexperiential therapies. Involves understanding oneself in the here-and-now, including understanding one's self-defeating tendencies.
  11. Behavior Therapy
    Therapies which view behavior as resulting from learning and direct their attention toward overt, observable, and measurable behaviors and events.
  12. Behavioral Family Therapy
    Type of family therapy defining the family's problem in overt behavioral terms and uses problem solving solutions acceptable to all members.
  13. Biofeedback
    The use of an apparatus to provide feedback to individuals about physiological responses that are usually unobservable.
  14. Board of Directors
    A group of individuals that establishes an organization's policies and objectives and supervises the activities of personnel charged with implementing those policies.
  15. Boundaries
    The abstract emotional barriers protecting or enhancing the integrity of individuals, subsystems, and families.
  16. Bureaucracy
    The formal organization, with specific tasks, goals and a clearly defined hierarchy.
  17. Case Conference
    A meeting of professional staff and others to discuss a client's problems, objectives, intervention plans, and prognoses.
  18. Case Integration
    Involves coordinating the activities of all providers who are serving the needs of one client.
  19. Case Management
    involves planning, seeking, and monitoring services from different social agencies and staff on behalf of the client.
  20. Catharsis (Abreaction)
    Term used by Freud to describe a patient's expression of repressed emotion (i.e. the release of strangulated affect)
  21. Chaining
    A type of learning involving the association of responses such that each response acts as the stimulus for the following response. Used by Watson and Skinner to explain the learning of complex behaviors.
  22. Classical conditioning
    A type of learning in which a previously neutral stimulus (US), through repeated pairing with a stimulus (CS) that elicits a certain response (CR), eventually elicits the response itself (UR).
  23. Client-Centered Therapy
    Type of therapy, (described by Carl Rogers), based on the belief that the individual's inherent potential for growth and improvement can be released by certain conditions: accurate empathy, genuineness (congruence), & unconditional positive regard.
  24. Closed-Ended Questions
    Interview questions which limit a client's answers to predefined response choices.
  25. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies
    Therapies which recognize the basic conditioning factors that form behavior, but also emphasize the role of cognitive mediation in the development and maintenance of behavior.
  26. Cognitive Therapy
    A type of cognitive-behavior therapy (Beck) which views dysfunctional behavior as resulting from maladaptive thinking and emphasizes the empirical evaluation of treatment principles and techniques.
  27. Collaboration
    Two or more professionals working together to serve a client (who may be an individual, family, group, community, or population)
  28. Complementary Communication
    According to Jackson, interactions based on different levels of relating.
  29. Complementary Relationships
    Dyadic relationships based on differences which fit together.
  30. Conflict Management
    Involves four basic steps: recognize the conflict; assess the conflict; select a strategy; and intervene.
  31. Confrontation
    An honest or constructive calling of attention by the therapist to an element of the client's behavior.
  32. Congruent Communication
    Communication where none of the messages contradict the others.  The way one feels matches his/her expressive communication messages.
  33. Consultation
    The use of a specialist in a particular area to help with a work-related problem
  34. Contingency Theory
    Fiedler's theory of leadership effectiveness, which proposes that leadership effectiveness is related to an interaction of the leader's style and the nature of the situation.
  35. Continuing Education
    Training proided to individuals who are already professionals but seek to update their skills and/or knowlege in their field.
  36. Contracting
    In counseling, assigning a client to perform a task learned in counseling outside the session.
  37. Conversion
    Defense mechanism in which an emotional conflict or anxiety is transformed into a physical symptom.
  38. Counertransference
    In psychoanalysis, the analyst's unconscious emotional responses to the client.
  39. Convert Sensitization
    A type of aversive conditioning in which the client imagines engaging in the target behavior while simultaneously imagining an aversive stimulus.
  40. Decentralization
    The delegation of responsibilities and activities by the leadership level of an organization to lower-level organization members who are closer to the problem or activity.
  41. Defense Mechanisms
    According to psychoanalytic theory, the mechanisms used by the ego to prevent conscious awareness of anxiety-producing impulses, thoughts, desires, etc.
  42. Detriangulation
    (Bowen's family therapy) When a relationship becomes too intense or too distant, opposing members seek to join with the same person against the other, forcing the third party to alternate loyalties between the two.
  43. Differential Reinforcement for other Behaviors (DRO)
    Behavioral technique in which the target behavior is decreased by consistently reinforcing all behaviors except the target behavior.
  44. Differentiation
    According to Bowen, the separation of the intellect and emotion allowing an individual family member to resist being overwhelmed by the emotional states of other family members.
  45. Disengagement
    According to Minuchin, the psychological isolation that results when there are strong, impenetrable, or rigid boundaries between individuals or subsytems in a family.
  46. Displacement
    Defense mechanism in which hostile or otherwise unacceptable impulses are discharged by expressing them toward a neutral or nonthreatening target rather than the original target.
  47. Double-Bind Communication
    A set of contradictory communications from the same person.
  48. Ego
    According to Freud, the aspect of the personality associated with relational thought. The ego relies on the reality principle to mediate between the id, the superego, and external reality.
  49. Ego Psychology
    Psychoanalytic psychology which emphasizes the strengths and weaknesses of the ego, has a more optimistic view of humankind than Freud, and rejects Freud's biological, instinctual emphasis on personality development.
  50. Ego Strength
    In psychodynamic theory, the amount of psychic energy available to an individual for resolving internal conflict, problem-solving, and defending against distress.
  51. Empathy
    The ability to perceive, understand, and experience the emotional state of another person.
  52. Empathic Responding
    Communication skill used throughout the counseling process to initiate rapport, maintain therapeutic relationship, and enable the therapist to move towards confronting a client's problematic issues.
  53. Enmeshed Boundaries
    According to Minuchin, a family is enmeshed when there are diffuse psychological boundaries between subsystems and between individuals.
  54. Equifinality
    A term associated with general systems theory which states that, no matter where one enters the system, the patterning will be the same.
  55. Equipotentiality
    General systems theory concept that one cause may produce different results.
  56. Evaluation Research
    The systematic assessment of a program's outcome.
  57. Existentialism
    A school of philosophy focusing on human existence, as opposed to abstract, impersonal, and rationally behaving systems.
  58. Extinction (Classical conditioning)
    In classical conditioning, the decay of a conditioned response as a result of the repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus.
  59. Extinction (Operant conditioning)
    In operant conditioning, the elimination of a response or behavior as the result of removal of reinforcement.
  60. Family Life Cycle
    A longitudinal view of a family's development including both expected and unexpected or traumatic phases.
  61. Family Map
    Associated with structural family therapy. Refers to a symbolic representation of family structure, created from the therapist's observations of a family. It reflects the arrangement of family members around issues of concern.
  62. Family Myths
    Beliefs shared by all family members concerning each other and their relative positions in the family
  63. Family Of Origin
    The original nuclear family of an adult; and adult's parents and sibling. Bowenian family therapy is sometimes referred to as family of origin therapy.
  64. Family Rituals
    Regular, predictable behaviors of the family that have a sense of rightness about them
  65. Family rules
    According to Satir, family rules, either overt or unconscious, illustrate family values. These rules determine the ongoing behavior of the members in the system.
  66. Fixation
    In psychoanalysis, the notion that psychosexual development can be arrested at a particular stage such that the personality becomes structured around the unresolved conflicts of that stage.
  67. Flooding
    A classical extinction technique that involves exposing the individual in vivo or in imagination to high anxiety-arousing stimuli.
  68. Free Association
    Psychoanalytic technique in which the client explores his or her unconscious conflicts by spontaneously expressing whatever comes to mind.
  69. Focusing Responses
    Interview technique used to keep the conversation from wandering or jumping from one subject to another.
  70. Funding
    Allotment of money to an organization for program implementation during a specified time period.
  71. Genital Stage
    Freud's fifth state of psychosexual development when sexual gratification is achieved through sexual intercourse.
  72. General Systems Theory
    Theory that the "whole" can be understood only in terms of the organization and interactions of its components.
  73. Genogram
    In family therapy, a schematic diagram of the family system including at least three generations. The genogram maps for the therapist, and the family, recurring patterns of behavior, and includes critical events such as death, births, & rites of passage.
  74. Gestalt Therapy
    Form of therapy based on the concepts of gestalt psychology (figure/ground relationships, the "whole is greater than the sum of its parts") emphasizing here-and-now awareness of personal thoughts, sensations, and feelings.
  75. Grant
    A transfer of money or other assets from a government, organization, or person to another organization or person so that the latter can achieve a particular purpose.
  76. Hawthorne Effect
    The concept that organizational change, regardless of its intent or content, produces a positive effect on worker motivation and/or performance.
  77. Hazardous Event
    The first stage of crisis. A stressful circumstance disrupting an individual's equilibrium and initiates a series of actions and reactions.
  78. Here-and-Now
    Refers to the need for clients to focus on the present, enriching current experiences, and living each moment to its fullest.
  79. Homeostasis
    The self-maintenance of a system in a state of equilibrium or balance by reducing deviation so the system maintains status quo. Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback.
  80. Assimilation versus Acculturation
    Assimilation is when a person replaces their original home culture with their new culture. Assimilation is a process in which persons of diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds come to interact, free of constraints, in the life of the larger community. It is a one-way process, through which members give up their original culture and are absorbed into the host culture.  It was this form that many early immigrants experienced when they migrated to the United States, but the trend you are seeing with a higher percentage of immigrants is acculturation.  

    Acculturation is when a person keeps their original home culture but also adapts and accepts the new culture. In effect, this person is bi-cultural. While maintaining original customs, history and values they also add custom’s of their new culture environment. As the United States becomes more diverse this person will actually have an advantage over others that only know and understand one culture. It is very important for a person to adopt and accept their new environment, but this does not have to be at the expense of throwing away their original culture.
  81. Cultural Competence
    Cultural competence refers to an ability to interact effectively with people of different cultures. Cultural competence comprises four components: (a) Awareness of one's own cultural worldview, (b) Attitude towards cultural differences, (c) Knowledge of different cultural practices and worldviews, and (d) cross-cultural Skills. Developing cultural competence results in an ability to understand, communicate with, and effectively interact with people across cultures.
  82. Culture
    Culture is the learned, shared and transmitted social activities of a group that satisfies all basic needs for survival.
  83. Discrimination
    Discrimination is an act of exclusion prompted by prejudice. It is prejudice in action.
  84. Ethnocentrism
    It is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of one's own culture. Ethnocentrism often entails the belief that one's own race or ethnic group is the most important and/or that some or all aspects of its culture are superior to those of other groups. Within this ideology, individuals will judge other groups in relation to their own particular ethnic group or culture, especially with concern to language, behavior, customs, and religion. These ethnic distinctions and sub-divisions serve to define each ethnicity's unique cultural identity.
  85. Minority group
    A minority group is a group of people who, because of their physical or cultural characteristics, are singled out from others in the society in which they live for differential and unequal treatment, and who therefore regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination.
  86. Pluralism
    Pluralism is a process of compromise characterized by mutual appreciation and respect between two or more ethnic groups, such that members of different groups are permitted to maintain their cultural ways, as long as they conform to those practices deemed necessary for the survival of the society as a whole.
  87. Predilection
    Predilection is the preference of an individual of one culture, skin color or language as opposed to another.
  88. Prejudice
    Prejudice is a rigid, inflexible, exaggerated predilection or an attitude in a closed mind.
  89. Race
    Race is an anthropological concept used to divide humankind into categories based upon color of skin and other physical characteristics.
  90. Racism
    Racism is the belief that one’s own race is superior to another. This belief is based on the erroneous assumption that physical attributes determine the social behavior and intelligence of a group. Ultimately, the racist believes that the inferiority of others is a basis for inferior social treatment. Racism exists on a personal and institutional level. It is both covert and overt. It is intentional and unintentional.
  91. Scapegoating
    Scapegoating is full fledged discrimination in action. It is unleashed aggression in word and deed.
  92. Stereotype
    Stereotype is a mental category that is based upon exaggerated and inaccurate generalization about a group of people that tend to be unfavorable.
  93. Suppression
    Suppression a process where one culture is kept in check because it is viewed as inferior.
  94. Habituation
    • 1. A type of adaptation in which an individual has learned to eliminate
    • responses to repeated and distracting stimuli. For example, an abused
    • child might appear to become indifferent to continued physical
    • punishment. 2. Some social workers and other professionals also use the
    • term to refer to a form of a drug dependence in which the individual has
    • more of a psychological craving than a physical addiction (manifested
    • by withdrawal symptoms).
  95. Hallucination
    • An imagined perception of some object or phenomenon that is not really
    • present. Often a symptom of psychosis, it may involve hearing
    • nonexistent voices (auditory hallucination), seeing objects that are not
    • there (visual hallucination), smelling (olfactory hallucination),
    • tasting (gustatory hallucination) and touching (haptic hallucination).
  96. Harassment
    • The act of tormenting, intimidating, threatening, or badgering an
    • individual using physical, mental, emotional, or economic coercion or
    • influence.
  97. Histrionics
    Manipulative behavior that is overly dramatic, demanding, volatile, self-indulgent, and attention seeking.
  98. Hypothesis
    A tentative proposition that describes a possible relationship among facts that can be observed and measured.
  99. Id
    • In psychoanalytic theory, the part of the mind or psyche that harbors
    • the individual’s instinctive or biological drive, libido, or psychic
    • energy. The id is completely unconscious, but id wishes are always being
    • discharged. Its demands are centered on the body, and it is governed
    • solely by the pleasure principle. It attempts to force the ego, which is
    • generally governed by the reality principle, to meet its demands
    • without regard to the long-term consequences.
  100. Idealization
    The overestimation of another person or of that person’s specific attributes.
  101. Identification
    The unconscious modeling of one’s self upon other person’s behavior.
  102. Identity
    • An individual’s sense of self and of uniqueness, as well as the basic
    • integration and continuity of values, behavior, and thoughts that are
    • maintained in varied circumstances.
  103. Identity Disorder
    • A mental disorder usually first observed in children and adolescents
    • characterized by persistent and long-standing self-doubts. The
    • individual’s experiences uncertainty about goals, moral values, sexual
    • orientation, family, and friends. Symptoms of identity disorder are
    • similar to the conflicts seen in identity crisis, except they have
    • lasted longer and persist even when in supportive environments.
  104. Individualization
    • The ethical value in social work and other helping professions for
    • understanding the client as a unique person or group rather than as one
    • whose characteristics are simply typical of class.
  105. Introjection
    • In psychoanalytic theory, a mental mechanism in which the individual
    • derives feelings from another person or object and directs them
    • internally to an imagined form of the person or object. For example, an
    • individual may introject parental criticism, turning it into some type
    • of self-criticism.
  106. Isolation
    • 1.The condition of being separated and kept apart from others. 2.
    • Psychologically, it is aversion to or fear of contact with others. 3. In
    • psychodynamic theory, it is a defense mechanism in which memories are
    • separated from emotions that once accompanied them.
  107. Intellectualization
    Rationalizing and making generalizations about anxiety-provoking issues to minimize pain and anxiety.
  108. Jean Piaget
    • Best known for his research and theory on child cognitive development.
    • Piaget’s theory attempts to describe and explain the processes by which
    • individual’s perceive and organize thoughts and knowledge to understand
    • the environment.
  109. Judgment
    Ability to identify and weigh the consequences of a behavior before acting.
  110. Jungian Theory
    • Also known as Analytical Psychology, is a theory originated by Carl
    • Jung. This theory emphasizes conscious and unconscious influences on
    • behavior. It has similarities to the Psychoanalytic Theory, but is
    • distinct. The theory differs from the Psychoanalytic Theory in that Jung
    • believes that the ego was conscious.
  111. Juvenile
    For purpose of criminal law, a young person who has not yet attained the age at which he or she would be treated as an adult.
  112. Key informants
    • An approach to needs assessment that is based on the expert opinions of
    • individuals who are presumed to have special knowledge about a target
    • population’s problems or needs.
  113. Kinship
    • A group of people bound by the same bloodline (genetic inheritance). Use
    • of the term usually implies other characteristics shared by the family,
    • such as similar behaviors, values, and talents.
  114. Kleptomania
    • 1.Compulsive stealing. 2. An impulse control disorder in which the
    • person unlawfully takes property belonging to another. The theft act is
    • motivated by emotional release, excitement, or gratification and not by
    • need for the object of its material value.
  115. Kohlberg, Lawrence
    • Developed the Theory of Moral Development as an extension and
    • modification of Piaget’s Theory. Kohlberg agreed with Piaget that moral
    • development occurs in successive stages, however, he believed that moral
    • development was longer and more complex than suggested by Piaget.
  116. Labeling
    The application of a name to a person or a person’s problem based on observed traits or patterns of behavior.
  117. Labeling Theory
    • The hypothesis that when people are assigned a label, such as “paranoid
    • schizophrenia,” to indicate some kind of disorder or deviance, others
    • tend to react to the subjects as though they were deviant. Also, the
    • subject may begin to act in a way that meets the others’ expectations.
  118. Libido
    • In psychoanalytic theory, sexual instinct (energy towards expression of
    • pleasure and the seeking of love object as well as erotic
    • gratification); basic psychic energy.
  119. Linking
    • The procedure used in group therapy and social work with others in the
    • group by pointing out how one client’s experience seems similar to that
    • of another group member’s.
  120. Macro Practice
    • Social work practice aimed at bringing about improvements and changes in
    • the general society. Such activities include some types of political
    • action, community organization, public education campaigning, and the
    • administration of broad-based social service agencies or public welfare
    • departments.
  121. Maladaptive
    • Pertaining to behaviors or characteristics that prevent people
    • from meeting the demands of the environment or achieving personal goals.
  122. Maladjustment
    The inability to develop or maintain the values, thoughts, and behaviors needed to succeed in the environment.
  123. Malpractice
    • Willful or negligent behavior by a professional person that violates the
    • relevant code of ethics and professional standards of care and that
    • proves harmful to the clients.
  124. Mandated clients:
    • One who uses the services of a social worker or other professional
    • involuntarily, usually as a requirement imposed by some other authority.
  125. Manic episode
    • A symptom found in some of the mood disorders, especially bipolar
    • disorder, consisting of an abnormally and persistently elevated,
    • expansive, or irritable mood lasting at least four days. This may
    • include feelings of inflated self-esteem, grandiosity, pressured speech,
    • flight of ideas, distractibility, and psychomotor agitation, all of
    • which are a clear departure from the individual’s usual mood and
    • functioning.
  126. Medical Model
    • An approach to helping people that is patterned after the orientation
    • used by many physicians. This includes looking at the client as an
    • individual with an illness to be treated, giving relatively less
    • attention to factors in the client’s environment, diagnosing the
    • condition with fairly specific labels, and treating the problem through
    • regular clinical appointments.
  127. Mezzo Practice
    • Social work practice primarily with families and small groups. Important
    • activities at this level include facilitating communication, mediation,
    • and negotiation; educating, and bringing people together.
  128. Microaggressions
    • Brief and commonplace verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities
    • that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative slights and insults
    • towards people of color, LGBTQ persons, people with disabilities, the
    • elderly, and other minorities.
  129. Modeling
    • In behavior therapy and social learning theory, a form of
    • learning in which an individual acquires behaviors by imitating the
    • actions of one or more other people.
  130. Mood Disorders
    • A group of serious mental disorders involving affective lability
    • (depression or persistently elevated moods). The diagnosable mood
    • disorders include major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, bipolar
    • disorder, cyclothymic disorder, and substance-induced mood disorders.
  131. Moratorium
    • A time in a negotiation process during which both sides agree or are
    • compelled to refrain from the disputed actions so that a fair settlement
    • can be reached.
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