Vocabulary Words

  1. American Board of Funeral Service Education
    agency/organization with responsibility to accredit colleges of mortuary
  2. Animistic view
    early Roman view of the afterlife which emphasizes the soul as the vital principle. The soul at death hovered around the place of burial and required constant attention of the descendants to be happy. Neglect would bring evil upon them.
  3. Anthropid
    human shaped; some early coffins were described as anthroidal shaped
  4. Anubis
    Egyptian god of embalming said to be of human fom with the head of a jackal
  5. Barber-surgeons
    approximately 1540-1745 were the sole agency permitted to embalm and perform anatomical dissections in the city of London
  6. Bier
    Forerunner of today's hearse; a hand stretcher on which the uncoffined body was carried to the grave
  7. bloodletting
    the practice of treating illness(es) by opening veins to release the "bad blood or humors"
  8. burial cases
    generic term used in America to designate all burial receptacles as new variations of the coffin were being offered
  9. burial clubs
    created in 1800's London by the poor people as a means to afford funerals; costs were shared by others via weekly collections; were the forerunners of the industrial insurance
  10. Burial vaults
    outer enclosure for caskets placed in the grave; originally intended to prevent grave robbery
  11. burial Woolen Act of 1666
    required that woolen cloth be substituted for linen in the shroud and lining of the coffin; was an attempt to shift the use of imported linen to the expanding paper industry of England and provided customers for the wool industry. Heavy fines were assessed for violations; not repealed until 1814.
  12. Canopic Jars
    jars made of alabaster, limestone, basalt, clay and other materials used by the ealy egyptians to store viscera of the deceased
  13. casket manufactres Association
    organization of the casket manufacturers intended to facilitate sharing of information (now known as the Casket and Funeral Supply Association)
  14. casket
    term meaning Jewl box or container for something valuable; came into dominant use in patent literature for burial receptacles in 1890's in America
  15. catacombs
    originated in ancient Rome as excavated cemeteries cut out of soft rock for the tombs of wealthy Christians; later became a place for religious rites to avoid persecution
  16. cerecloth
    cloth treated with melted wax or gummy matter and formely used especially for wrapping a dead body
  17. Chadwichk's report
    Edwin Chadwich in the 1840's reported on unsanitary conditions in London created by intramural burials and the high cost of funerals
  18. Charnel (Charnel House)
    • 1. cemetery
    • 2. a building or chamber in which bodies or bones are deposited
  19. circle of necessity
    ancient Egyptian belief that the soul of the deceased would make a 3000 year journey and return to the body. Once reunited the whole man would live with the gods. This belief created the need for embalming.
  20. coffin
    utilitarian container designed to hold human remains
  21. cooling boards
    portable table on which the body was placed while the corpse cooler was in use; later became the embalming table when embalming was done in the home of deceased
  22. corpse coolers
    type of ice chest placed over the torso of the body to slow down the process of decomposition prior to the funeral. it was typically a responsibility of the undertaker to provide ice and change the ice when it melted.
  23. cortege
    funeral procession
  24. creamtion
    method of disposing of the dead body via fire; first attributed to the ancient Greeks.
  25. Crier
    English custom of Middle Ages which lasted until 19th century; perso nwho walked the street calling out the name of the deceased and asking people to pray for the soul of the departed
  26. designator
    master of ceremonies and director of the ancient Roman funeral procession
  27. direct disposition
    disposition of the remains without any rites or ceremonies
  28. drummers
    traveling salesman who went from town to town selling their products. Early embalmers often obtained their products and training in this manner
  29. Effigy
    a life-sized, waxen recreation (dummy) of the deceased; often used at state funeals because the body of the decased should be present for the funeral, but could no be preserved for that lenght of time. (Madame Tussaud's Wax Museum or Lenin in his tomb)
  30. Elysian Fields
    body and soul, composed of atoms, simply disintergrate at death so man in the afterlife is no different than before life. Afterlife expected only for heros, the nobility and the rich.
  31. Extramural Burial
    burial outside the walls of the city
  32. fisk metallic coffins
    patented in 1848 as form-fitting, airtight metallic coffin designed to improve ability to preserve the body; also had a glass plate to allow the viewing of the face
  33. funeralis
    latin for torchlight procession; the word funeral is derived from this
  34. funeral feasts
    in middle ages the wake also served as feast to welcome the principal heir to his new estate
  35. funeral trolley car
    a specially designed train car run on a city's trolley line to transport casket & mourners to cemeteries on the outskirts of the city
  36. funeral undertaker
    provided services of organizing and facilitating funeral details as an occupation; aka undertaker, different from furnishing undertaker.
  37. furnershinging undertakers
    provided supplies and merchandise (i.e. doorbadges, carriages, etc.) to funeral undertakers who were dealing directly with the public. Furnishings undertakers filled the role of the middle man.
  38. gravity
    a mechanical method to apply embalming solution by elevating a bowl of liquid attached by a tube
  39. hand pump
    method to apply a continuous flow of embalming solution via manual manipulation of a handheld mechanism
  40. hease
    today, a vehicle specially designed to transport casketed remains; derived from French word, herse; originally a staionary framework of wood to hold candles and decorations placed on the coffin; forerunner was a bier and hearse and bier wee used interchangeably until mid 19th century
  41. Inviter to funerals
    a specialty connected with funerals in colonial america; called personally upon those expected to attend funerals; often a municipal appointment
  42. Jewish Funeral Director of America (JFDA)
    chartered in 1928 to secure harmony in the profession amoung Jewish funeral directors and elevated the practice of the profession
  43. Layers out of the dead
    became an occupational specialty in many larger US cities by the end of the 18th century; predecessor to the undertaker
  44. leagues of prayer
    formed in the middle ages by lay persons to bury the dead and to pray for the souls of the faithful departed
  45. libitina
    the ancient roman goddess of corpses and funerals
  46. libitinarius
    head undertaker in ancient Rome; the secular role model for today's funeral director; conducted his business at the temple of Libitina where death were also registered
  47. Life signals
    due to the fea of pre-mature burial, many early American coffins were designed and patented with a method to alert the living if someone was buried alive
  48. mound burial
    ancient Viking custome; after deceased was placed in his boat with items necessary for the spirit to maintain the position held on earth, all was cremated and the pyre then covered with earth
  49. mystery cults
    religious/philosophicalbelief of the ancient Greeks and Oriental East emphasizing spirtual aspects of the afterlife and the hope of joining the cult god in a wonderful existence in eternity.
  50. style "E" state coffin
    cloth covered coffin designed for ex-president US Grant by Stein Coffin Co. in 1885 and helped elevate acceptance of cloth covered caskets
  51. soul shot
    mortuary fee
  52. trade embalmer
    or embalmer to the trade; term orignated when some of the original graduates of early embalming courses gave up regular employment with a single firm to provide embalming service to firms which had no trained embalmer
  53. trocar
    long hollow tube patented in 1868 by Samuel Rogers of Philadelphia; used by embalmers to inject fluids into cavitites and remove excess liquids
  54. Undertaker
    original term applied those whose occupation included responsibility to organize and facilitate funeral activities; used interchangeably (by some) for the term funeral director
  55. undertaker's buggy
    name given to the vehicle used by undertakers to transport the necessary mortuary paraphernalia to the homes where funerals were typically held. These vehicles sometimes had apperance similar to hearse, but were much less ornate.
  56. undertakers mutual protective association
    first formal organization of undertakers; originated in Philadelphia, January 1864
  57. University Mortuary Science Education Association
    organization of college & university based funeral service programs
  58. wake
    originated as an ancient Hebrew practice, family and friends sit with the deceased as a precaution agaist premature burial; continued as an act of peity in Middle ages (aka vigil for the dead)
  59. Crane and Breed
    important in the introduction and developement of early funeral transportation
  60. J. Anthony Gaussardia
    he patented a process of embalming involving the injection of an arsenic-alcohol mixture
  61. Barbe
    a long pleated arrangement of linen worn by a window during the Middle Ages. The arrangement resembled a beard.
  62. James A. Gray
    the individual to receive the first American patent on a metallic coffin in 1836
  63. Robert Frederick and C.A. Trump
    they received one of the first patents for a corpse cooler/cooling board during the 19th Century
  64. John L. Dillon
    started one of the first coffin shop/warehouses in New York City
  65. Auguste Renouard; Dr. Richard Harlan; Joseph H. Clarke; A Johnson Dodge
    influential individuals in the developement of mortuary school and education in the 19th Century
  66. Joel Crandall
    considered an innovator in the field of Restorative Art
Card Set
Vocabulary Words
Final Exam review Vocab