Cognitive treatments for Depression

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  1. How does cognitive therapy aim to treat depression?
    By challenging and removing negative thoughts and changing the negative schema associated with depression
  2. Which two schools of psychology are employed in cognitive treatment?
    • Cognitive techniques change thoughts
    • Behavioural techniques modify behaviours
  3. Who created cognitive behaviour therapy?
    Beck in 1976
  4. What is the aim of CBT?
    To challenge the negative cognitive triad of negative thinking by helping people solve practical problems in their lives in a positive way
  5. How many sessions are usually involved with CBT and over how long?
    20 sessions over a 10 week period
  6. Describe phase 1 of CBT
    • Identification/ recognition of negative thoughts (thought catching)
    • Allows the therapist to determine a baseline to monitor improvement
  7. Describe phase 2 of CBT
    • A hypothesis is generated to test thoughts 
    • client: 'I am useless', they are then asked if, in reality, they have been successful at something
  8. Describe phase 3 of CBT
    • Scientific testing of negative thoughts 
    • The therapist may ask the client to do something to demonstrate their ability to succeed
  9. Describe phase 4 of CBT
    • Patient as a 'scientist' 
    • Involves the gathering of data as homework (keeping a diary)
  10. Describe phase 5 of CBT
    • Reinforcement of positive thoughts 
    • Client is rewarded/praised for positive thinking
  11. Describe phase 6 of CBT
    • Cognitive restructuring 
    • Over time, irrational thoughts are replaced by more rational beliefs
  12. Who created Rational emotive behaviour therapy?
    Ellis in 1984
  13. What is the task of the therapist in REBT?
    To directly challenge/dispute the negative assumptions the client makes due to their automatic negative thoughts (ANTs)
  14. What is rational confrontation?
    Vigerous arguments with the client to challenge or dispute their irrational beliefs
  15. How does REBT differ than other forms of therapy
    It tends to be more argumentative and confrontational
  16. Give one example of a shame attacking exercise
    Taking a banana for a walk
  17. What is the object of shame attacking exercises?
    To challenge the client's negative schemas
  18. Describe the Hollon et al study of 2006
    • Aim: To compare the effectiveness of cognitive and drug therapy
    • Method: P's with moderate to severe depression were either treated with drugs or with 16 weeks of cognitive therapy and followed up for one year. 
    • Results: Relapse rates for those receiving cognitive therapy was 40% compared to 45% for those receiving drug therapy, a placebo group showed relapse rates of 80%
    • Conclusion: Cognitive therapy is at least as effective as drug therapy for treating depression
  19. Describe Robinson's study of 1990
    57 studies were meta-analysed and CBT was identified as more effective than drug therapy and psychotherapy with post treatment depression levels remaining significantly reduced
  20. How can CBT be seen as more engaging than other therapies?
    The patient takes an active role in their own treatment (patient as a 'scientist' phase 4)
  21. How may CBT result in a more permanent all round benefit than that resulting from other treatment?
    The patient gains insight into their thought processes leading to better self management strategies and life enhancement
  22. How is CBT a more substantial method than drug therapy?
    It tackles the root cause of the depression (assuming that the root is their negative thoughts) reducing relapse rates
  23. How is motivation an issue?
    In order for cognitive therapy to work, the patient must be highly motivated to change. Highly depressed individuals are often lethargic and unmotivated
  24. How may cognitive treatment be unsuccessful on shy patients?
    Some people may find this approach too direct and confrontational causing upset and apprehension towards further treatment
  25. What ethical objections can be raised against cognitive therapy?
    It is unethical to dictate what someone can and can't think and to say someone's way of thinking is incorrect impugns on their sense of freedom and individuality
Card Set
Cognitive treatments for Depression
AQA PSYB3 Mood disorders cognitive treatments
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