Neurochemical explanation for depression

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  1. The imbalance of which two neurotransmitters is thought to cause depression?
    Noradrenaline and Serotonin
  2. What is monoamine oxidase?
    An enzyme that breaks down a neurotransmitter so that it is no longer active
  3. What is reuptake?
    The process in which a neurotransmitter is reabsorbed into the neuron that produced it
  4. What element has bipolar successfully been treated with?
  5. Name one study into the neurochemical explanation for depression
  6. What was the aim of Teuting et al (1981)?
    To investigate the role of serotonin and noradrenaline in depression
  7. What was the method employed by Teuting?
    A compound, produced when serotonin and noradrenaline are broken down by enzymes is present in urine. Urine of depressed and non depressed individuals was analysed and these compounds were measured.
  8. What were the results of Teuting's study?
    Depressed patients' urine had lower levels of the compound
  9. What did McNeil and Cimbolic study in 1986?
    Measured levels of serotonin byproducts in the cerebrospinal fluid of suicidal patients
  10. What did McNeil and Cimbolic find?
    Less by products were found in the fluid of depressed individuals
  11. What does the blood pressure lowering pill Reserpine also do?
    Lowers levels of serotonin and noradrenaline in the brain
  12. What side effects does Reserpine have?
    It causes depression
  13. What do antidepressants do?
    Increase the levels of serotonin and noradrenaline at the synapse, or return them to normal levels in bipolar mania
  14. What effects do antidepressants have on depressed patients?
    Cause a reduction in symptoms
  15. What does the effect of antidepressants suggest?
    Low levels of serotonin are responsible for depression
  16. How long does it take for antidepressants to produce an improvement in symptoms?
    Several weeks
  17. How long does it take for serotonin and noradrenaline levels to be raised or balanced?
    Minutes to hours
  18. What does the difference in time between change in levels of neurotransmitters and improvement of symptoms suggest?
    Other factors such as faulty biochemistry must be involved
  19. Define: Treatment Fallacy
    The mistaken belief that treatment leads directly to a cure
  20. How is the lithium assumption a treatment fallacy?
    The improvement of symptoms in the presence of Lithium does not prove that depression is caused by a lack of it
  21. Describe the paracetamol analogy
    Headaches are not caused by a lack of paracetamol
  22. What did Thase et al find in 2002?
    Depressed patients had increased levels of noradrenaline
  23. What do the findings of Thase et al suggest?
    The neurochemical explanation cannot be generalised to all patients
  24. What could depression also be caused by?
    Social factors
  25. Give one example of a social factor that could cause depression
    Death of a loved one
  26. What does the effect of social factors suggest
    There is an environmental cause for depression
Card Set
Neurochemical explanation for depression
AQA PSYB3 Mood disorders
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