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  1. #of carb grams covered by 1 unit of insulin
    insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio (ICR)
  2. # of mg/dL one unit of insulin lowerS glucose
    insulin sensitivity factor (ISF)
  3. Main site of action of biguanides & what is the name of the medicine(s)?
    • Liver
    • metformin
  4. How does metformin control bg?
    keeps liver from releasing too much glucose
  5. Main site of action of sulfonylureas & what is the name of the medicine(s)?
    • pancreas
    • glyburide, glipizide
  6. How do glyburide and glipizide control bg?
    By stimulating the pancreas to release more insulin
  7. Which oral med(s) can cause hypoglycemia?
    sulfonylureas (glyburide, glipizide)
  8. Main site of action of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) & what is the name of the medicine(s)?
  9. muscle cells
    pioglitazone (Actos)
  10. How do TZDs control bg?
    makes muscle cells more sensitive to insulin
  11. When is metformin contraindicated?
    • kidney problems, severe lung dz or liver dz
    • if creatitine is >1.5 in men or >1.4 in women
  12. rapid acting insulin:  onset, peak, duration
    • 5-15 min
    • 47-75 min
    • 2-4 hrs
  13. regular insulin:  onset, peak, duration
    • ~30 min
    • 2-4 hrs
    • 5-8 hrs
  14. intermediate insulin:  onset, peak, duration
    • ~2 hrs
    • 6-10 hrs
    • 18-28 hrs
  15. long acting insulin:  onset, peak, duration
    • ~2 hrs
    • none
    • 20-24+ hrs
  16. what insulins are basal and what are bolus
    • basal:  long-acting and intermediate
    • bolus:  rapid-acting and fast-acting
  17. mechanism of action of DPP-4 inhibitors
    what are the benefits and disadvantages
    • works on postprandial bg by increasing insulin secretion
    • no hypoglycemia & well-tolerated
    • high cost
  18. mechanism of action of GLP-1 agonists
    what are advantage and disadvantage
    • increase insulin secretion, slows gastric emptying, increased satiety
    • no hypoglycemia & wt loss
    • high cost & possible N/V
  19. possible side effects of TZDs
    liver damage, swelling of feet and legs
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