Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: Animal Reproduction

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  1. 1) egg develops without being fertilized
    2) thus no males are needed to complete the reproductive process
    3) difficult to classify as either sexual or asexual reproduction
  2. a) several species of Hawaiian geckos
    b) desert-grassland whiptail lizards
    c) rotifers
    d) honeybees (males develop parthenogenetically from haploid eggs)
    e) aphids
    examples of parthenogenesis
  3. no sex differences apparent in the gametes (e.g., some seaweeds)
  4. gametes distinguishable as small motile sperm and large non-motile egg (e.g., most plants and animals)
  5. a. simpler
    b. more efficient
    c. less wastage 
    d. produces clones of genetically identical individuals
    e. perpetuates successful genotypes in stable environments
    f. facilitates rapid colonization of environments
    g. allows reproduction when probability of finding a mate is low
    h. population with very little diversity except for that resulting from mutation
    i. population risks going extinct if environment changes too drastically
    asexual reproduction
  6. a. more complex because it involves meiosis to produce haploid gametes
    b. subject to errors, especially during meiosis
    c. process often wasteful
    1) often sperm and eggs released that never fertilize
    2) only females produce offspring, but still need males to fertilize eggs
    d. single-celled zygote (fertilized egg) must proliferate and differentiate into multicellular adult form
    e. requires finding a mate
    f. results in genetic diversity amongst the individuals of a population
    g. diversity insures that some individuals may survive despite environmental change
    h. leads to faster rates of evolution, thus a species is more likely to adjust to change through evolution
    sexual reproduction
  7. 1) primary male organ
    2) site of sperm and testerone production
    3) seminiferous tubules: actual location of spermatogenesis (see below)
    4) epididymis
  8. a) coiled tubules above testis
    b) site for storage of mature sperm before ejaculation
  9. 1) tubule connecting the epididymis from each testis to urethra
    2) receives secretions from seminal vesicles
    3) carries semen and sperm to urethra during ejaculation
    vas deferens
  10. 1) common tube for the passage of urine (from urinary bladder) and semen (from vas deferens) to exterior
    2) receives secretions from prostate and bulbourethral gland
  11. 1) external sac containing the testes
    2) regulates testes temperature (critical for proper sperm function)
  12. 1) canal connecting the space of the scrotum to abdominal cavity
    2) testes descend into scrotum through this canal after birth
    inguinal canal
  13. 1) male copulatory organ responsible for delivering semen into female vagina
    2) responds to sexual stimulation (mainly the glans penis)
    3) contains erectile tissue that engorges with blood during an erection
  14. a) contributes the majority of semen secretions
    b) composed of alkaline with mucus, fructose, ascorbic aid, coagulating enzyme, & prostaglandins
    seminal vesicle
  15. secretes anticoagulant enzymes and citric acid to the semen
    prostate gland
  16. a) neutralizes acidity in urethra from residual urine
    b) lubricates end of the penis prior to copulation
    bulbourethral gland
  17. the formation of sperm cells
  18. diploid cells that produce many primary spermatocytes through mitosis
  19. primary ________ (diploid) undergo first meiotic division to secondary ________ (haploid)
  20. second meiotic division leads to haploid ______
  21. spermatids mature into _______
  22. stimulates spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules by acting on Sertoli cells
    follicle stimulating hormone (FSH):
  23. stimulates interstitial cells (Leydig cells) of testes to produce androgens (e.g., testosterone)
    luteinizing hormone (LH)
  24. 1) muscle & bone growth
    2) facial and pubic hair growth
    3) thickening of vocal cords
    4) growth of pharyngeal cartilage
    5) hair follicle effects
    6) stimulates sebaceous glands
  25. 1) primary female reproductive organ
    2) site of oogenesis and female hormone production (see below)
    3) eggs form within follicles
    4) follicle cells after ovulation develop into corpus luteum
  26. 1) finger-like extensions of the oviduct extending around ovary
    2) cilia draw ovulated egg into fallopian tube
  27. 1) transports ovulated ovum to the uterus
    2) fertilization usually occurs in oviduct
    oviduct or fallopian tube
  28. 1) endometrial lining of uterus is site of implantation of developing embryo (blastocyst stage)
    2) site of placental attachment of embryo and fetus during pregnancy
    3) fetus develops in uterus until childbirth occurs
    4) cervix
    uterus or womb
  29. 1) receives the penis and ejaculated sperm during copulation
    2) serves as the birth canal during childbirth
  30. the external female genitalia
  31. opening housing the openings to the vagina and urethra
  32. slender skin folds surrounding vestibule
    labia minora
  33. encloses and protects labia minora (homologous with male scrotum)
    abia majora
  34. 1) responds to sexual stimulation
    2) homologous with the male glans penis
  35. 1) lubricates vestibule and opening of the vagina
    2) homologous with male bulbourethral gland
    Bartholini's gland
  36. the formation of egg cells
  37. a) oogonia (diploid)
    b) primary oocytes (diploid)
    c) secondary oocytes (haploid)
    d) ootids (haploid)
    e) mature ova (ovum, singular)
    oogenesis: occurs in the follicles of the ovary
  38. developing ova receive nutritional support from _______
    follicle cells
  39. a) endometrial lining of the uterus not shed, but resorbed, after ovulation (if no pregnancy has occurred)
    b) females only receptive to copulation during ovulation
    c) receptive period
    d) characteristic of non-human mammals
    estrous cycle (non-primate mammals)
  40. a) endometrial lining of the uterus shed following ovulation if no pregnancy has occurred (menstruation)
    b) females often receptive to copulation during all phases of the menstrual cycle
    menstrual cycle (humans and many other primates)
  41. neurosecretory cells of _______ secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) into blood capillaries
  42. 1) begins on the first day of menstrual flow
    2) primary follicle develops into Graafian follicle primarily in response to presence (though in low levels) of FSH
    3) LH has no affect on follicles during this phase because follicle cells do not have LH receptors during this phase
    4) as follicle develops, it secretes estradiol (estrogen) which increases slowly at first
    5) increasing estradiol (estrogen) levels stimulates thickening of the endometrium of the uterus (proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle)
    6) estradiol (estrogen) during this phase tends to have an inhibitory effect on the secretion of FSH and LH by the pituitary
    follicular phase
  43. 1) Graafian follicle secretes estradiol (estrogen), rapidly increasing estrogen levels in the blood
    2) rapid increase in estrogen cause anterior pituitary to release FSH and LH in large amounts
    3) sudden increase in LH stimulates final maturation of the follicle, followed by ovulation (note follicle cells now have LH receptors)
    ovulatory phase
  44. 1) high levels of LH convert remain follicle cells (after ovulation) to develop in the corpus luteum
    2) corpus luteum secretes both estrogen and progesterone a) estrogen and progesterone contribute to maintenance of the thickened endometrium (secretory phase of the menstrual cycle) b) these hormones exert negative feedback on the production of GnRH by the hypothalamus
    3) as FSH & LH levels drop, the corpus luteum begins to degenerate
    4) subsequent reduction in FSH and LH results in shedding of the endometrial lining (menstrual flow phase)
    luteal phase
  45. 1) occurs when estrogen and progesterone levels drop suddenly as the corpus luteum degenerates (see above)
    2) usually lasts for several days
    menstrual flow phase
  46. 1) estrogen from the growing follicle stimulates thickening and vascularization of the endometrium
    2) prepares the endometrium of the uterus for receipt of an embryo should fertilization occur
    menstrual proliferative phase
  47. 1) endometrium reaches its thickest and begins to secrete glycogen-rich fluid
    2) requires estrogen and progesterone to remain established
    menstrual secretory phase
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Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: Animal Reproduction
Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: Animal Reproduction
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