What are the four (4) basic types of tissues?
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Neural
Summerize epithelial tissue.
It covers exposed surfaces, lines internal passageways and chambers, and forms glands.
Summerize connective tissue.
It fills internal spaces, provides structural support for other tissues, transports materials within the body, and stores energy reserves.
Summerize muscle tissue.
It specialized for contraction and includes the skeletal muscle of the body and of the heart, and the muscular walls of hollow organs.
Summerize neural tissue.
It carries information from one part of the body to another in the form of electrical impulses.
Name the five (5) characteristics of epithelial tissue.
- 1. Cellularity
- 2. Polarity
- 3. Attachment
- 4. Avascularity
- 5. Regeneration
Name four (4) functions of epithelial tissue.
- 1. Provides physical protection to exposed and internal surfaces from abrasion, dehydration, and destruction by chemical/biological agents.
- 2.Controls permeability by requiring permission for certain substances to enter of exit the barrier.
- 3. Provides sensation to the sensory nerves from external/internal enviroments. Neuroepithelium provides smell, taste, sight, equilibrium, and hearing information.
- 4. Produces specialized secretions, which can discharge to the surface (to provide physical protection or temperature regulation) or released to internal surroundings, the blood and interstitial fluid, to act as chemical messenger.
CLINICAL NOTE - Exfollative Cytology
It is the study of cells sched or removed from epithelial surfaces. The information assists the medical community to screen and diagnose for certain disease. One type of screening is the Pap test, pioneered by Dr. George Papanicolaou, that checks for cervical (cervix) cancer. Another example is the amniocentesis test, which samples the amniotic fluid to check for fetal genetic abnormality (i.e. Down Syndrome).
Name six (6) functions of the connective tissue.
- 1. Establishes a structural framework for the body.
- 2. Transports fluids and dissolved materials.
- 3. Protects delicate organs.
- 4. Supports, surrounds, and interconnects with other types of tissue.
- 5. Stores energy reserve, especially in the form of triacylglycerols.
- 6. Defends from invading microorganisms.
List three (3) classifications of connective tissue.
- 1. Connective tissue proper. Includes loose, i.e. adipose tissue, and dense, i.e. tendons.
- 2. Fluid connective tissue. Mostly found in watery matrix containing dissolved protiens. Two (2) types are blood and lymph.
- 3. Supporting connective tissue. Protects soft tissues and supports the weight of the body. Two (2) types are cartilage (gel like) and bone (calcified like).
CLINICAL NOTE - Marfan Syndrome
It is an inherited condition caused by the production of an abrnomal weak form of fibrillin (a glycoprotien that impacts strength and elasticity). Visible signs invovle the skeleton, abnormal long limbs and fingers. Serious problems involve the cardiovascular system; the arteries and blood vessels my burst and cause fatal loss of blood.
What is an adipose tissue?
It is fat, mostly made up by adipocytes, that provides padding, absorbs shocks, acts as an insulator to slow heat loss through skin, and serves as packing or filler around structures. White fat stores energy. Brown fat generates heat to keep the body warm (abundant in babies).
What is liposuction?
A surgical procedure to remove unwanted adipose tissue.
Name the three (3) types of cartilage.
- 1. Hyaline cartilage. The most common of cartilage, except inside joint cavities.
- 2. Elastic cartilage. Contains numerous elastic fibers that make it extremely resilient and flexible.
- 3. Fibrous cartilage. Is dominated by densely interwoven collegen fibers, making it extremely durable and tough.
Name the three (3) types of muscle tissue.
- 1. Skeletal muscle tissue. Located with combined connective and neural tissues in skeletal muscle.
- 2. Cardiac muscle tissue. Located in the heart.
- 3. Smooth muscle tissue. Found in blood vessel wall, digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive organs.
What is a neural tissue?
A neuron and neuroglia containing tissue that carries information by conducting electrical impulses from one region of the body to another.
What is inflammation?
It is swelling, redness, warmth, and pain to a tissue when it becomes injured. Increased blood flow, vessel permebility, temperature, oxgen, nutrients, and phagocytes occurs in order to remove toxins and waste products.
What is regeneration?
It is the repair process to restore normal function. It decreases concentration of pathogens, toxins, waste products, and chemicals from injured cells.
Describe aging and tissue structure.
Tissue stucture changes with age; changes in hormonal alterations, reduction of physical activity, and an adoption of a sedentary lifestyle are some contributing factors. Some changes in tissue, like bone structure, can be delayed or even reversed with proper dieting / vitamin supplements, exercising, and medication.
Describe aging and cancer incidence.
Cancer rates increase with age; one (1) out of four (4) people in the US will develop a form of cancer in their lives. A high percentage results from or combination from chemical exposure or environmental factors. two (2) out of five (5) people with cancer are related to cigarette smoking.