History Semester Exam packet one (part 2)

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  1. Farmers' Alliance
    local farmers' organizations linked together to negotiate for lower prices for supplies, freight ect
  2. Civil Rights Act of 1875
    guaranteed black patrons the right to ride trains and use public facilities such as hotels
  3. Battle of Little Big Horn
    Colonel George Custer and his force of 250 men were killed by a group of 2,000 Indians led by Chief Crazy Horse
  4. Wounded Knee
    battle that ended the "Ghost Dance War" and sealed the Indians' demise
  5. Circumstances that hurt native Americans
    • forced onto reservations
    • introduction of disease
    • destruction of buffalo herds
  6. reason for Indian settler tension
    • Settlers want for their land and resources
    • Indian reluctance to move
    • Treaties made by the government were not enforced
  7. Rebellions that ended Indian resistance
    • Red River War
    • Battle of Little Big Horn
    • The Nez Perces' flight to Canada
    • the Ghost Dance War
    • Battle of Wounded Knee
  8. Transcontinental Railroad
    a rail link between the East and the West needed to transport goods
  9. Open-range system
    • livestock roamed freely and foraged for feed
    • no fences but cattle were branded
    • ended because of barbed wire
  10. Homestead Act
    government offered farm plots of 160 acres to anyone willing to live on the land for 5 years, dig a well, and build a road
  11. government encouragement for transcontinental railroad
    • provided money for construction
    • gave land grants for railroad
  12. reason farmers move to plains
    • to own land
    • more space
    • freedom 
    • profit
  13. Jim Crow Laws
    laws enacted by Southern  governments to prevent African Americans from voting
  14. 15th amendment
    prohibited state governments from denying someone the right to vote because of race color or previous condition of servitude
  15. Poll tax
    required voters to pay a tax to vote, preventing poor African Americans from voting
  16. Literacy Tests
    required voters to pass a test to vote, disqualifying uneducated voters
  17. Grandfather Clause
    allowed a person to vote as long as his ancestors had voted prior to 1866
  18. Plessy v Ferguson
    ruled that as long as states maintained separate but equal facilities for blacks and whites they did not violate the 14th amendment
  19. Booker T. Washington
    • a former slave, he believed blacks should "pull themselves up from their own bootstraps"
    • Created the Tuskegee Institute
  20. W.E.B. DuBois
    argued that blacks should demand immediate equality and not limit themselves to vocational education
  21. Ida B. Wells
    born in Holy Springs MS, she moved to Tennessee, bought a newspaper, named it "Free Speech" and wrote articles condemning the mistreatment of blacks
  22. WCTU (Women's Christian Temperance Union)
    fought the sale of liquor and supported women's right to vote
  23. things that restricted the rights of Blacks
    • voting rights (grandfather Clause, literacy test, poll tax)
    • segregation(kept them from getting jobs, housing, and schools)
  24. Wells, Washington's, and Dubois protests
    • wrote newspaper articles
    • made speeches
    • Washington urged blacks to establish theirselves economically
    • Dubois demanded full and immediate equality
  25. Success of Women after Reconstruction
    • improved education
    • organized activist groups(WCTU)(NWSA)
  26. Spoils System
    politicians awarded government jobs to loyal party workers with little regard for their qualifications
  27. Civil Service
    a system that includes federal jobs in the executive branch
  28. Pendleton Civil Service Act
    • (1883) established a Civil Service Commission which wrote a civil service exam
    • getting a job depended on doing well on the exam rather than political connections
  29. Gold Standard
    gold would be used as the basis of the nation's currency
  30. Spoils system leading to government corruption and then government reform
    • Friends took advantage of their positions for personal profit and political favors 
    • Civil service reform tried to end the corruption by hiring qualified people
  31. Grange
    farmers' organization with the goals of providing education on new farming techniques and calling for the regulation of railroad and grain elevator rates
  32. Populist Party
    a political party as a result of the spread of the Farmers' alliances
  33. William Jennings Bryan
    presidential candidate nominated by the Populist Party in 1896
  34. William Mckinley
    presidential candidate nominated by the Republican Party in 1896
  35. Farmers' major problems
    • high railroad rates
    • low crop prices
    • high interest rates
  36. reforms farmers introduced
    • maximum rates for shipping and storage 
    • establishment of ICC
    • established of "sub-treaties" to give farmers low interest rates
  37. goals of the populist party
    • end political corruption
    • increase the money supply
    • begin government ownership of railroads
  38. Outcome of the Populist and reforms that became a reality
    • Defeats in 1896 and 1900 weakened the party till it wasn't a treat to the main parties
    • graduated income tax, regulation of railroads, and a flexible monetary system were populist ideas that became a reality
Card Set
History Semester Exam packet one (part 2)
Semester exam for history packet one.
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