history semester exam packet one (part 1)

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  1. Laissez Faire
    allowed businesses to operate under minimal government regulations
  2. Patent
    grant by the federal government giving an inventor exclusive right to develop, use, and sell an invention
  3. Big Business change economy
    • Horizontal and vertical integration created monopolies
    • created jobs and used new tech.
    • eliminated small business
    • ignored poor working conditions
    • Government had to regulate railroads
  4. Cornelius Vanderbuilt
    • Father of railroad industry
    • got started in the steamboat industry
  5. Monopoly
    complete control of a product or service
  6. John Rockefeller
    oil tycoon, made deals with railroads to increase his profits
  7. Horizontal integration
    system of consolidating many firms in the same business
  8. Trust
    companies assign their stock to a board of trustees who combine them in to a new organization
  9. Andrew Carnegie
    steel tycoon
  10. Vertical integration
    gaining control of the supplier of a businesses product
  11. Robber Baron
    name given to big businessmen who bought or squeezed  our their competition
  12. Captains of industry
    name given to big businessmen by those who believed they helped the economy by providing jobs
  13. Social darvinism
    wealth is a measure of one's value and those who had it were the most "fit"
  14. Interstate commerce commision
    created by US senate to oversee railroad operation first federal body set up to monitor American business operations
  15. Sherman Antitrust Act
    • outlawed any trust that operated "in restraint of trade or commerce among the states."
    • also used to regulate business like ICC
  16. arguments regarding big business
    • argued that monopolies gave unfair advantages and eliminated small businesses
    • some said they create jobs, new technologies, and created universities
    • also cited social Darwinism
  17. Socialism
    an economic and political philosophy that favors public, instead of private, control of property and income
  18. Knights of Labor
    • labor union founded in 1869 by Uriah Stephens 
    • Secret society that actively recruited African Americans and was devoted to social reforms such as replacing capitalism with workers' coops
  19. American Federation of Labor
    • union for specific craft workers founded by Samuel Gompers 
    • Focused on specific workers' issues such as wages,working hours, and working conditions
  20. Haymarket Riot
    resulted when fights broke out between police and protesters at a national demonstration for 8 hour workday in Chicago
  21. Homestead strike
    • took place when Carnegie Steel plant cut workers' wages
    • one of many strikes that occurred as economic depression spread across America
  22. Pullman Strike
    • led by Debs in response to George Pullman's cutting wages and charging high rent in the company town where workers were required to live
    • President Cleveland sent troops to stop strike and Courts declared the government had the right to intervene and end the strike
  23. Working conditions affect families
    • whole family worked to survive
    • accidents and illnesses were common and meant a loss of wages for the family
  24. Goals of labor unions
    • Knights of Labor- wanted broad social reform, recruited a broad range of people
    • AFL- wanted to improve working conditions and wages
  25. strikes and effectiveness
    • organized to protest poor working conditions and wages
    • led to riots and disruption of services
    • labor unions were soon associated with violence
  26. New immigrants
    • southern and eastern Europeans who began coming to America in increasing number in the 1870's
    • often unskilled, poor, and either Catholic or Jewish
  27. Ellis Island
    • where immigrants were "processed" to decide who could stay in the US (In New York)
    • largest immigration station in the US
  28. Angel Island
    where immigrants arriving in San Francisco wer "processed"
  29. Americanization
    programs designed to help immigrants learn English and adopt american dress and diet
  30. Nativism
    belief that native-born white americans were superior to newcomers
  31. Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
    • prohibited immigration of Chinese laborers
    • limited the civil rights of Chinese immigrants already in the US
    • outlawed nationalization of Chinese residents
  32. Push/pull factors for immigrants
    • Push: farmers forced off their land, wars and political turmoil, and religious persecution
    • Pull: great expanses of land, plenty of work, family and friends already established here. religious and political freedon
  33. Process of arriving imigrants
    • medical exam and were detained if they were unhealthy
    • interviewed by a customs officer to determine if they could support their selves
    • Single women were detained until married or a relative collected them
  34. Reasons Americans wanted to restrict immigration
    feared competition for housing and jobs
  35. Immigrants change American culture
    • worked of railroads, in factories, and in mines
    • joined political parties and unions
    • contributed some of their traditions
  36. Urbanization
    period in which the number of cities and people living in them increased dramatically
  37. Rural to Urban migrants
    the move of farmers to cities in the 1890s to work in factories
  38. Suburbs
    cleaner, quieter perimeters of cities where middle and upper class people moved
  39. Tenements
    low cost, multifamily, housing designed to squeeze in as many families as possible, usually unhealthy and dangerous
  40. Working condition for farmers moving to the cities
    • dimly lit
    • work space small
    • work days long 
    • the schedule was rigid
  41. Advantages of city life for former farmers
    • variety of jobs
    • children had access to schools
    • more opportunities for entertainment and cultural activities
    • their standard of living raised
  42. opinions on the development of suburbs (Stanley v. Pirani)
    • Stanley- viewed them as improvement over the quality of life causing a decline in urban populations, services, and political power
    • Priani- sprawling developments that use land inefficiently and degrade environment
  43. Gilded age
    novel written by Mark Twain in 1873 depicting America as having a rotten core but cover with gold paint
  44. Mass culture
    • the similarity of consumption patterns among Americans 
    • most could have the same clothes, household gadgets, toys, and food
  45. Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst
    • started newspapers designed to provide information and stir up controversy
    • papers included comics, sports, illustrations, and reports of political corruption
  46. new forms of entertainment
    Amusement parks, outdoor events (movies, Wild West shows, Vaudeville shows), and spectator sports
Card Set
history semester exam packet one (part 1)
Packet one for semester exam
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