PBS Final Study Guide Part 1

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  1. What causes death?
    • The failure of one system can cause failure of next
    • Ending in lack of brain function
  2. What clues may be found at a scene of a mysterious death that may help determine the cause of death?
    • vomit
    • blood
    • fingerprints
    • DNA
    • saliva
    • bite marks
    • bullets
    • poison
  3. If someone was interested in a carrier with responsibility to determine the cause of death, what careers should be considered and investigated?
    • Forensic Pathologist: medical doctor that primarily does autopsies and determine cause of death
    • Toxicologist: PhD who tests body fluids for presence of toxins and medications to help determine cause of death
    • Coroner: Elected official that works with police and helps decide whether to have autopsy and whether a crime has been committed
  4. Urinary System
    place for pee
    • kidneys
    • ureters
    • bladder
    • urethra
  5. Nervous System
    full of nerves
    • brain
    • spinal cord
    • peripheral nerves
    • sense organs
  6. Endocrine System
    secrete within
    • pancreas
    • thymus
    • thyroid
    • pituitary
    • pineal gland
    • adrenal glands- towards kidneys
    • ovaries/testes
  7. Digestive System
    • teeth/tongue
    • salivary gland
    • pharynx
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
    • rectum
    • liver
    • gallbladder
  8. Respiratory
    • nasal cavity
    • pharynx 
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • alveoli
  9. Cardiac System
    • atria
    • ventricles
    • veins
    • venules
    • arteries
    • arterioles
    • capillaries
    • erythrocytes
  10. immune system
    • bone marrow
    • thymus
    • spleen
    • lymph nodes
    • tonsils
    • leukocytes
    • appendix
  11. Urinary system does what?
    filters waste out of blood, removing cellular waste from all systems
  12. Nervous system does what?
    tells other systems what to do via electrical signals
  13. Endocrine system does what?
    secretes hormone that signal other systems to do things
  14. Digestive systems does what?
    absorbs nutrients to feel other systems
  15. Respiratory system does what?
    brings in oxygen needs by all cells and removes carbon dioxide waste
  16. Cardiovascular system does what?
    transportation system- bring nutrients, hormones, O2 to all systems, carries waste away
  17. Immune system does what?
    protects us by preventing, trapping and killing pathogens
  18. Skeletal system does what?
    provides structural support, protects soft organs, makes blood cells
  19. urinary malfunction
    • waste build up
    • kidney failure
  20. nervous system malfunction
    paralysis, Parkinsons, epilepsy
  21. endocrine system malfunction
    gigantism, thyroid disorders, clotting disorders
  22. digestive system malfunction
    celiac disease, crones disease, can interfere with absorption of nutrients
  23. respiratory system malfunction
    cystic fibrosis or infections from fluid build up
  24. cardiovascular system malfunction
    vision loss or limb loss
  25. immune system malfunction
    inability to fight diseases
  26. skeletal system malfnction
    can't fight disease, can circulate blood
  27. what is a system?
    • parts that work together to do a job 
    • in the case of the body, similar cells make up tissues and the tissues form organs
  28. what is an autopsy?
    a medical examiner opens up the body cavities, weighs and examines organs, extracts fluids,
  29. how can an autopsy be used to describe the cause of death?
    post mortem
  30. when can patient confidentially be broken?
    • under 18
    • medical release form
    • suspected abuse
  31. what is a gene?
    a segment of a chromosome and is made of DNA
  32. what is the DNA code?
    codes for the production of one protein
  33. what is the connection between genes and proteins?
    each protein determines one trait. our genes determine our hereditary.
  34. how are proteins produced in a cell? TRANSCRIPTION
    • RNA polymerase transcribes the DNA in the nucleus of the cell
    • DNA is unwound
    • RNA transcribes DNA into mRNA
  35. how are proteins produced in a cell? TRANSLATION
    • mRNA travels to the cytoplasm
    • ribosomes translate the mRNA using tRNA
    • each tRNA molecule brings one amino acid to the mRNA until a long string is
    • made
  36. how does the sequence of nucleotides in DNA determine the sequence of amino acids in a protein?
    • nucleotides in DNA are transcribed into mRNA
    • RNA contains uracil
    • tRNA attaches the correct amino acid for each codon 
    • each chain of amino acids formed is a protein
  37. what determines the shape of a protein?
    primary structure (sequence) of amino acids
  38. is the shape of a protein affected by its surrounding environment?
    • proteins fold differently based on if they are in an aqueous solution (mostly water) such as blood, or a lipid
    • when in water, the hydrophilic bits are on the outside
  39. if the DNA code is changed, does the shape of a protein change?
    not necessarily
  40. can changing just one nucleotide in a gene change the shape of a protein?
  41. is it possible to design proteins that have specific characteristics?
    yes. thats what genetic engineers do.
  42. how are proteins designed?
  43. what is a feed back mechanism?
    when one thing happens in response to another
  44. in what ways do negative and positive feedback differ?
    • positive feedback: creates a larger and larger response until something major happens-growth
    • negative feedback:trigger response in a correction in order to keep balance- blood pressure
  45. why is having too much sugar in the blood bad?
    means that energy is not reaching the cells
  46. what might happen to cells that are exposed to high concentration of sugar?
    • thickens the blood, causes less flow
    • stresses cardiovascular system
    • high blood pressure
    • poor circulation
  47. what is the role of insulin in our body?
    gets sugar to the cells
  48. how does insulin accomplish its job?
    opens door of cell for glucose
  49. what is diabetes?
    • type 1: never produces insulin
    • type 2: cells object insulin
  50. treatments for type 1 and type 2 diabetes
    • type 1: insulin
    • type 2: lifestyle change
  51. nutrients identified on food labels
    • serving size
    • calories
    • total fat
    • saturated fat
    • trans fat
    • unsaturated fat
    • cholesterol 
    • sodium
    • total carbs
    • fiber 
    • sugar
    • starch
    • protein
  52. how is the amount of energy in a food determined?
  53. what is the role of a chemical bond in energy transfers?
    energy is released when a chemical bond is broken
  54. what is the basic structure of all matter?
    • all matter is made up of atoms 
    • different kinds of atom are called elements
    • atoms form bonds to make compounds 
    • a compound in which the atoms share electrons are called a covalent bond
  55. what is a chemical reaction?
    • when a molecule forms from atoms coming together or when the bonds between the atoms are broken
    • energy change: it will glow and/or heat will be adsorbed 
    • color change: a new color will show up
    • odor change: a smell will be given off
    • precipitate: a solid will form from 2 liquids
    • gas produced: a gas will be given off
  56. what is the relationship between nutrients, food, chemical reactions, and energy?
    • food is made of nutrients and nutrients are made of molecules
    • molecules are broken down through chemical reactions, giving off energy
  57. why is water balance such an important factor in maintaining homeostasis?
    keeping fluid levels constant in body
  58. are sports drinks a valuable tool in maintaining homeostasis?
    no, most people do not need to extra sugar or salt
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PBS Final Study Guide Part 1
pbs final study guide
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