USU 1350

  1. Communities and Ecosystems
    Network of life
  2. Community
    Biotic (living) members: plants and animals
  3. Ecosystem
    Biotic and abiotic (nonliving) members
  4. abiotic
    weather, water, mineral soil, topography, components
  5. Ecosystem Properties
    • Dynamic
    • Scale is important
    • Size is difficult to measure
    • Boundaries difficult to define
    • Generally self-sustaining
    • Matter cycles in ecosystem
    • Energy powers matter cycling
  6. Matter
    • occupies space and has mass
    • cycles in ecosystem
    • atoms and compounds that make up plants and animals
  7. Energy
    • capacity to do work
    • moves matter around in ecosystem
    • Sun is sorce of all past, present, and future on earth
    • not cycled
  8. Niche
    • Plant and animal species has a unique role in ecosystem
    • comprised of dimensions
    • number of dimensions unknown
  9. Range of tolerance
    • any enviromental dimension has RoT
    • Group of species with similar ranges form communities
  10. Generalities for Range of Tolerance
    • Some ranges for dimesions are wide = generalist
    • some ranges are narrow = specialist
    • Management perspective = transplants and reintroduce
  11. Patterns in ecosystem
    space and time
  12. Patterns in Space
    Ecological equivalents - species differ between communities but have similar morphological and physiological adaptations
  13. Patterns in time
    succession is the sequential process of change in ecosystem
  14. Pioneer Community
    • first step following disturbance
    • Characterized by turnover of species
  15. Climax Community
    • final step following disturbance
    • characterized by turnover of individuals
    • reaches dynamic equilibrium
  16. Succession Types
    • Primary - majority of life removed: volcano, mudslides (rare)
    • Secondary - remnants of previous community: patchiness of fire
  17. Earth's System
    • atmosphere
    • hydrosphere - water, glaciers
    • lithosphere - rocks, soils, minerals
  18. Ecology
    the study of organisms in their home environments
  19. population
    organisms of same kind in an area
  20. natural community
    populations of different kind of organisms living together and interacting together
  21. habitat
    environment which particular organism lives
  22. ecological niche
    organisms role in community
  23. Environment
    all of surroundings that affect organism or group of organisms
  24. limiting factor
    factor determing whether a particular organism can survive in that place
  25. high net primary productivity
    estuary, swamp, marsh , tropical rainforest
  26. low net
    desert, oceans
  27. heterotrophs
    other nurished
  28. secondary
    contain food by eating primary
Card Set
USU 1350
Unit 3