export_final phonology ch 9.csv

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  1. What type of approach should you use to treat articulation errors?,"Phonetic approach
  2. aka traditional or motor approach"
    • "In phonetic approaches, each error sound is treated _______.","Individually, one after another."
    • Should a traditional-motor approach be automatically used with all clients who exhibit a single-sound error?,"No - they could be having problems with the function of the sound, which is phonological"
    • The level of accuracy before proceeding tot he next stage of tx is usually what percent?,80% to 90% accuracy
    • What level of accuracy is needed in spontaneous contexts for termination?,50% accuracy
    • Skills that require the child to think and talk about language,Metalinguistic
    • What is the first step for articulation therapy that most clinicians do not implement?,sensory-perceptual training
    • 5 progression steps for articulation therapy?,"1. Sound in Isolation
    • 2. Nonsense syllables
  3. 3. Words
  4. 4. Phrases & sentences
  5. 5. Spontaneous speech"
    • "Isolation: In this procedure, the clinician gives examples of the sound and the client is asked to imitate the sound. ""Watch me and do exactly what I do""",Auditory Stimulation/Imitation
    • What method is should be used first to elicit a new sound?,Auditory stimulation/imitation
    • Isolation: Clinician instructs the client how to position the articulators in order to produce a sound,Phonetic placement method
    • Isolation: Method based on deriving the target sound from a phonetically similar sound that the client can accurately produce,Sound modification method
    • Name for words that help the client produce the target sound accurately,Facilitating contexts or key words
    • What is the goal of using nonsense syllables?,To maintain accuracy of the target when it is embedded in varying vowel contexts
    • Typical sequencing of syllable shapes for nonsense sounds?,"CV, CV, and CVC"
    • Many clinicians skip which phase of tx?,Nonsense syllables - words are more meaningful and interesting to the client
    • Which 6 factors affect the articulatory complexity of a word?,"1. Length of word
    • 2. Position of sound within word
  6. 3. Syllable structure
  7. 4. Syllable stress
  8. 5. Coarticulation factors
  9. 6. Familiarity with the word"
    • "The (greater/fewer) syllables, the easier the word",Fewer
    • A sound in the _____ position of the word is the easiest,Initial
    • (Open/closed) syllable structures are easier,Open (CV) is easier than closed (CVC)
    • A target sound is easier to produce in a (stressed/unstressed) syllable,Stressed
    • What is one of the easiest ways to elicit a short phrase?,A carrier phrase with a target word at the end
    • The transfer of behavior to conversational speech in various setting is known as...,carryover
    • What is the only way to ensure that therapy was successful?,Reevaluation
    • "Misarticulations of /s/ and /z/
  10. 1. How are they normally formed?
  11. 2. Frequency of occurrence?","1. Fricatives with a narrow opening, and sagittal grooving
    • 2. /s/ - top 5 sound, /z/ - 11th of 24"
    • "Misarticulations of /s/ and /z/
  12. 4 things to consider before tx?","1. May be due to high freq hearing loss
    2. Minor structural changes may affect /s/ (missing teeth)
  13. 3. Consider tongue thrust
  14. 4. Auditory discrimination abilities"
    "Misarticulations of /s/ and /z/
  15. Methods for treating it?","1. Phonetic placement: tell them where to place tongue
    2. /t/ -- /s/: rapid /t/ repetitions or prolonged stop phase of /t/
  16. 3. // -- /s/: No lip rounding, move tongue forward, increase tongue groove
  17. 4. /f/ -- /s/: move lower lip and lift tongue
  18. 5. /i/ -- /s/: elevate tongue, raise lateral edges"
    • Should you start with /s/ or /z/ first?,Z could be more beneficial
    • Which vowels are better for coarticulation with /s/ and /z/?,Front vowels with no lip rounding
    • "Misarticulations of // and /zh/
  19. Treatment methods?","1. /s/ - // method: round lips and retract tongue
    2. /t/ - / / : prolonged /t/ with lip protrusion, then lengthen it
  20. 3. /t/ - / /: isolate friction portion. slow ch with lip protrusion, lengthen the end of it"
    "Misarticulations of // and /zh/
  21. Coarticulatory conditions?","Help with tongue placement: high-front
  22. Help with lip rounding: high back vowels"
    "Misarticulations of /k/ and /g/
  23. How to treat it when they're substituting /t/ and /d/?",Prevent tip of tongue from touching alveolar ridge - must stay behind lower incisors
    "Misarticulations of /k/ and /g/
  24. How to treat it?","1. /ng/ - /g/: prolong /ng/ while holding nostrils closed, release the buildup of air pressure into oral cavity
    • 2. /u/ - /k/: prolong /u/ an elevate back of tongue, use tongue to block air, release sound"
    • "Misarticulations of /k/ and /g/
  25. Coarticulatory conditions?",Help with posterior positiong: back vowels
    "Misarticulations of /l/
  26. How to treat?","1. /d/ - /l/: pull lateral edges of tongue down, or release air without losing contact with ridge
    2. /n/ - /l/: pinch nostrils shut
  27. 3. /i/ - /l/: prolong /i/ while moving tongue tip to ridge
  28. 4. /a/ - /l/: prolong /a/ with open mouth, elevate tongue tip to ridge"
    "Misarticulations of /l/
  29. Coarticulatory conditions?","Light vs. dark /l/. Consider position with word.
    Dark: high back (l at end of word)
  30. Light: high front (l at beginning)"
    "Misarticulations of /r/
  31. Two types of /r/?","Bunched
  32. Retroflexed - easier to implement"
    "Misarticulations of /r/
  33. How to treat?","1. /d/ - /r/: produce /da/, glide tongue tip back
    • 2. /er/ - /r/"
    • "Misarticulations of /r/
  34. Coarticulatory conditions",Consonantal /r/: back vowels
    "Misarticulations of // and /̡/
  35. How to treat?","1. /t/ - / /: slowly release t, maintain friction and move tongue forward
    2. /f/ - / /: pull away bottom lip, place tongue between teeth
  36. 3. /s/ - / /: glide tongue forward until tip almost touches teeth"
    "Misarticulations of // and /̡/
  37. Coarticulatory conditions?",High front vowels
    "Misarticulations of /f/ and /v/
  38. How to treat?
  39. Coarticulatory?","1. Bite down on lower lip with upper teeth
    2. /p/ - /f/
  40. 1. High -front -- no lip rounding!!!"
    • Misarticulations of affricates,"1. /t/ - /ch/
    • 2. /sh/ - /ch/
  41. 3. /s/ - /ch/"
    • Voicing problems: how to treat?,"Create awareness!
    • 1. Tactile-feedback method: feel throat
  42. 2. Auditory enhancement method: place hands over ears
  43. 3. Whispering method
  44. 4. Singing method: to produce voiced cognate of sound
  45. 5. Developing voiced stop productions"
    • Consonant cluster problems: how to treat?,"1. Epenthesis: insert a schwa
    • 2. Pausing"
    • Type of modeling: Models are presented immediatelybefore request for student to imitate .,Antecedent modeling
    • Model is given only after clientmakes a mistake,Error dependent modeling
    • "Clinician:Shows picture of bowl of soup. What۪s this?۝
  46. Child: [tup]
  47. Clinician: No, not quite. Is it soup۪ or [flup]?
  48. Child: [sup]
  49. Clinician: Right! It۪s soup.",Dependent Modeling withBinary Choice Prompt
    • "What are collapse of contrasts?
    • What type of therapy would you use?","When they use one sound for multiple sounds.
    • I would use Multiple Oppositions Approach"
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export_final phonology ch 9.csv
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