1. How many species of microorganism reside in the oral cavity?
    over 500, though only 200 have been identified
  2. study of algae, protozoa, fungi, prions, protists, and viruses
  3. unicellular, contains a nucleus. replicates via mitosis
  4. uni or multicellular, no nucleus, no nuclear membrane, single circular chromosome, replicates via binary fission
  5. basic bacteria shapes:
    • cocci - balls
    • bacillis - rod
    • spirilli - spirals
    • spirochetes - cork-screw spirals
    • vibrios - comma shaped
  6. Bacterial arrangements:
    • diplo - pairs
    • strepto - chains
    • tetrad - squaers
    • staphylo - clumps or sheets
  7. are viruses symmetrical or asymmetrical?
  8. which has a more complex structure: viruses or bacteria?
  9. gram positive stains what color?
  10. gram negative stains what color?

    "You blush pink when something negative happens!"
  11. How many families of viruses are there?
    over 80
  12. Which is denser: gram positive or gram negative?
    gram positive

    *therefore more peptidoglycan in the cell walls, and it retains more of the purple dye.
  13. Binary fission has phases as follows:
    lag phase
    log phase
    stationary phase
    decline phase
    • lag phase - cell grows in size, but no division
    • log phase - cell replicates, multiples
    • stationary phase - rate of cell growth = rate of cell death
    • decline phase - nutrients are depleted resulting in cell death
  14. at what phase of binary fission does penicillin attack bacterial cells?
    during cell wall synthesis of the log phase
  15. at what stage do viruses attach onto the cell walls?
    initiation stage
  16. two basic structures of fungal organisms
    yeast or mold
  17. unicellular spherical fungal structuers
  18. multicelluilar threadlike tubes, fungal structures
  19. how do fungi reproduce?
    sexually or asexually by forming spores, by fission or budding, or by fragmentation from a parent cell (mycelium)
  20. fungal parent cell
  21. unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms that can cause death
  22. how do protozoe reproduce?
    asexually by budding, schizogony (multi fission), or fission (one cell splits into two)
  23. what is the ideal human body temperature?
    37 degee celcius
  24. how do fevers happen?
    bacteria release exotoxins which in turn leads macrophages to release endogenous pyrogens. pyrogens act upon the hypothalamus, causing it to reset the internal "thermostat" to create a fever
  25. Which WBC is involved with acute inflammation?
  26. Which WBC is involved in allergic responses secrete chemical mediators that cause bronchoconstriction
  27. Which WBC, along with Mast Cells, play an important role in inflammatory and allergic responses when they release histamine
  28. What type of cell gets involved when an allergen releases IgE to release histamines
    Mast Cells
  29. antibodies produce by B cells after an antigen is introduced into the body
  30. Immunoglobulin which lines the body surfaces to protect microorganisms from entering the body's natural cavities. It is found in tears, saliva, respiratory tract, GI tract, productive tract, and urinary tract.
  31. Immunoglobulin present in small amounts but is a major factor on the surface of B cells. May recognize antigens
  32. Immunoglobulin involved with immediate hypersensitivity or anaphylactic rxns. It is chiefly bound to basophils and mast cells.
  33. Immunoglobulin also known as gamma globulin and is the most common antibody. functions to aggregrate or clump microorganisms together then opsonise them. The only immunoglobulin which can pass over the placenta from mother to baby
  34. Most common antibody (immunoglobulin)?
  35. Only antibody (immunoglobulin) which can cross the placenta?
  36. Immunoglobulin which stimulates the production of IgG and is produced first in the immune response. IT binds to an antigen cell surface to lyse that cell. Larger immunoglobulin with heavier molecular weight.
  37. Which Immunoglobulin is produced first in the immune response?
  38. Hypersensitivity Type I
    most serious type. Anaphylaxis that can be life-threatening. Invovles IgE antibody. Hives make be seen, as well as asthma
  39. Type of hypersensitivity associated with IgE
    Type I (anaphylaxis)
  40. Type II hypersensitivity
    antibody-antigen rxn which can affect organs and tissues.

    IgG and IgM

    Rh factor incompatibility mother-child, blood transfusion incompatibility
  41. Type of hypersensitivity associated with IgG and IgM
    Type II - antibody-antigen rxn
  42. Type III hypersensitivity
    antigen-antibody complexes accumulate

    complexes which are normally removed by the liver inundate the body. build up in joints, epidermis, blood vessels, lungs, and kidneys. arthus (inflammation) rxn such as serum sickness or rheumatoid arthritis can occur.

  43. Type IV hypersensitivity
    cell-mediated. does not involve antibodies.

    delayed rxn that is mediated by T cells

    symptions: skin rash, eczema, ulcers, or dermatitis.
  44. which type of hypersensitivity is related to rheumatoid arthritis?
    Type III
  45. How many types of hypersensitivity are there?
    4 (IV)
  46. Hypersensitivity:
    Type I
    Type II
    Type III
    Type IV
    • TI: anaphylaxis. IgE
    • TII: mother-baby, Rh factor incompatibility IgG IgM
    • TIII: rheumatoid arthritis. accumulation complexes at joints, bc liver dysfunction. IgG
    • TIV: no antibodies. T cells delayed rxn. skin rash, eczema, ulcers, or dermatitis.
  47. Lymphocytes mature in one of two ways:
    • T cells: (T lymphocytes) matured in thymus
    • B Cells: (B lymphocytes) mature in bone marrow
  48. Some B cells coat the antigen with antibodies by opsonization
    which acts as a meat tenderizer on microbes and makes it easier for macrophages to ingest them
  49. humoral immunity produces antibodies with
    B cells
  50. Cell mediated immunity does not produce antibodies with
    T cells
  51. Lymphocytes, when activated, produce glycoprotein-like cytokines termed
    lymphokines (just like macrophages produce monokins)

    cytokines initiate the immune response
  52. signs of inflammation
    • heat (calor)
    • redness (rubor)
    • swelling (tumor)
    • pain (dolor)
  53. Chicken pox is caused by
    varicella zoster, which can remain in the dorsal root ganglia
  54. where does varicella zoster lie dormant?
    dorsal nerve ganglia
  55. caused by over 200 viruses including coronavirus, rhinovirus, and adenovirus
    common cold
  56. inflammation of the conjunctiva of eye
    conjunctivitis or "pink eye"
  57. member of herpes family that often affects adults over 40, but can be transmit. to baby before birth. can remain dormant in body for a period of time. sexually transmitted. or to baby when nursing.

    signs n symp: liver and spleen enlarge.
  58. disease caused by parvovirus B19. rash 4-14 days. S&S: "slapped cheek", itchiness, red lacy rash on trunks n limbs, fever, malaise
    Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease)
  59. Hepititis comes in what forms?

    (NO F)
  60. Which Hepititis' which occurs in stages. preicteric and icteric
    A & B
  61. Hep with no chronic effect, some necrosis of liver may result. Pt. becomes immune after infection. Oral-fecal. Preicteric n icteric, upper right quadrant pain. Convalescent phase (complete recovery).

    Vaccine: Havrix
    Hepatitis A
  62. Hep also called Dane particle. Chronic liver disease. Unprotected sex, needle-sharing, unsterile tattoo-needle use. preicteric and icteric phases. and a convalescent phase. Vaccine: Recombivax or Engerix-B
    Hepatitis B
  63. Hep with chronic liver disease. flavivirdae. Leading cause of liver transplant. Needle-sharing.
    Hepatitis C
  64. Hep which neesd Hep B to replicate. IV drug use. Vaccine: Recombivax vaccine for Hep B
    Hepatitis D
  65. Hep occurs mostly in young to middle-age adults who live in developing nations w/ poor sewage and drainage. Oral-fecal route. S&S: sim to other hep but including arthralgia, diarrhea, and hives.
    Hepatitis E
  66. Hep: acute disease. S&S limited.
    Hepatitis G
  67. caused by Epstein-Barr virus, member of herpes family, dormant infection for life. Effects lumphoid tissue, occurs primarily in adolescents and young adults.
    Infectious mononucleosis
  68. RNA-Orthomyxoviridae

    • Influenza A: spreads fr human to animals and vis versa.
    • Influenza B: human to human
    • Influenza C: mild respiratory symptoms that do not result in epidemics.
  69. German measles, can cross placenta
  70. Measles associated with Koplik's spots (small red spots with blue-white centers) which tend to appear on buccal m ucosa.
  71. infection of parotid glands.
  72. Bordetella pertussis bacteria.
    Whooping cough

    • catarrhal stage: bact. attach to cilia.
    • Paroxysmal stage: mucous thicker n pt coughs to clear tracheobronchial tract.
  73. Chylamydia pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumonia.
  74. microorganisms assocaited with Mad cow disease

    transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
  75. Osteitis deformans.
    aka Paget's Disease

    chronic, painful bone disease. destroys bone then replaces with fragile bone. occurs after age 40. unknown etiology.
  76. Group A Beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacterial infect. which primary effects children.
    Scarlet fever

    (Rheumatic Fever in adults)
  77. What causes Shingles?
    Herpes zoster virus
  78. What bacteria causes Strep throat?
    Streptococcus pyogenes
  79. Hutchinson's incisors and Mulberry molars are associated with
    Syphilis which is caused by Treponema pallidum
  80. Stages of Syphilis and signs
    • Primary - Chancre (asymptom)
    • Secondary - Mucous Patches (rash, fever, malaise)
    • Tertiary - Gumma (body organ damage, paralysis, blindness)
  81. Intraoral symptom of primary stages of syphilis
  82. Intraoral symp of secondary stage of syphilis
    mucous patches
  83. intraoral symp. of syphilis: tertiary stage
  84. microrganism which resides exclusively on tongue is
    Stomatococcus mucilaginosus
  85. Tongue bacteria:
    Stomatococcus mucilaginosus

    • S mitis
    • S oralis
    • S salivaris
    • Haemophilus
    • Veillonella
    • A. naeslundii
  86. microflora of buccal mucosa
    • Haemophilus sp
    • Streptococcus sp

    • S mitis
    • S oralis
    • S sanguis
    • S vestibularis (in vestibule)
  87. Pit and fissure microorganisms:
    • A naeslundii
    • S mutans
  88. Interproximal microorganisms
    • S sanguinis
    • A israelii
    • A naeslundii
    • Prevotella sp
    • Stretococcus sp
    • Veillonella sp
  89. normal pH of plaque
  90. when eating food, the pH of oral cavity is lowered too
  91. pits and fissure caries start at what pH?
  92. smooth surfaces caries start at what pH
  93. root surface caries start at what pH?
  94. Dentin caries start at what ph?
    below 5
  95. bacteria mainly associ. with root caries
    A. viscosus and A. naeslundii
  96. bacteria mostly associ. with dentin caries
    Lactobacillus sp and A naeslundii
  97. bacteria mostly assoc with smooth surface & pits and fissure caries?
    S. mutans
  98. Stages of biofilm colonization:
    • Day 1-2: Colonizing. Aerobic. Gram +. S. mutans, S. sanguis, Streptococci
    • Day 2-4: Multiplication. Aerobic. Gram +. Rods, filaments
    • Day 4-7: Starts to mature. Aerobic and Anaerobic. +/-. Rods filaments, Fusobacteria
    • Day 7-14: Maturation. Anaerobics. G - . Vibrios, spirochetes
    • Day 14-21 Anaerobics. G - . Vibrios, spirochetes, cocci, filaments
  99. When does biofilm mineralization occur?
    24-72 hrs
  100. bacteria associated with SARS
  101. cytomegalovirus is associated with
    herpes symptoms like mononucleosis
  102. is streptococcus anginosus found in the acquired pellicle?
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