Chemistry Test 6

  1. the change in a system's internal energy is the sum of the heat aded to the system and the work done in the system
    Delta E= Q+W
    First Law of Thermodynamics
  2. the outermost electrons in an atom
    valence electrons
  3. light consists of bundles or "packets" of energy that travels as electromagnetic waves
    Quantum Theory of Light
  4. mass of a substance per unit volume
  5. theoretical gas that adheres exactly to the gas laws and assumptions of kinetic energy
    ideal gas
  6. -packs the most atoms into the smallest amount of space
    -also called cubic close packing
    face-centered cubic arrangement
  7. -moderately strong force that exists between neighboring polar molecules due to the attraction of oppositely charged ends
    -strongest intermolecular force
    dipole-dipole force
  8. relatively strong force between molecules that contain hydrogen covalently bonded to nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine; present in water, ammonia, and hydrogen fluoride
    hydrogen bond
  9. -weak force that exists between all molecules, both polar and nonpolar, due to the formation of instantaneous dipoles
    - strongest intermolecular force effecting the element iodine
    london force
  10. negatively charged particles
  11. bonding situation in which electrons are shared by more than two atoms
    delocalization (or resonance)
  12. the simplest ratio of atoms in a compound
    empirical formula
  13. allows three electron pairs to get as far apart as possible
    trigonal planar geometry
  14. -involve replacing one element in a compound with another

    A + BC --> B + AC
    single-displacement reaction
  15. -characterized by the sharing of a "sea" of delocalized electrons among many atoms
    -produces substances that are characteristically malleable and ductile
    metallic bond
  16. -randomness of a substance or system
    -second law states entropy is always increasing
  17. two polar bonds point symmetrically in opposite direction
  18. simplest repeating unit in a crystal
    unit cell
  19. atoms of the same element that differ in their mass numbers
  20. a bond that involves the sharing of four electrons
    double bond
  21. the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms
    covalent bond (has no metal)
  22. very hard and very high melting point
    covalent network
  23. the amount of heat required to cause a unit rise in temperature of a unit mass of a substance
    specific heat
  24. characterizes by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another
    ionic bond
  25. metal + nonmetal
    ionic bond
  26. solid whose particles are characterized by a regular, repeating three-dimensional pattern
    crystalline solid
  27. elements ten to react chemically to achieve a noble-gas electron configuration weather by losing, gaining, or sharing of electrons
    octet rule
  28. -covalent bond where bonding electron pair is closer to the more electron negative element
    -unequal sharing of electrons
    polar bond
  29. -enthalpy change is negative
    -warmer then the reactance
    exothermic (chemical) reaction
  30. molecule having two bonding pairs and two nonbonding pairs of electrons around the central atom
    angular geometry
  31. the heat per unit mass required to melt a substance at its normal melting point
    heat of fusion
  32. the position and momentum of small particles such as electrons cannot be precisely measured simutaneously
    uncertainty principle
  33. energy associated with an object's motion or movement
    kinetic energy
  34. used to predict whether a bond is primarily ionic or primarily covalent
    electron negativity
  35. the two values for absolute zero
    0k and -273.15 C
  36. causes the bright lines in the spectrum of glowing hydrogen gas
    electrons dropping from higher to lower energy levels
  37. the speed of light in a vacuum
    3.00 x 108 m/s
  38. determines an atom's identity as an element
  39. the electronegativity of an element
    • |..............largest
    • \/..................|
    • smallest <------
  40. equation of the ideal gas law in the usual form
    • PV= nRT
    • Pressure x volume = number of moles x ideal gas constant x temperature
  41. type of charge an electron possesses
  42. alkali metals
    row 1
  43. alkaline earth metals
    row 2
  44. halogens
    row 17
  45. noble gases
    row 18
  46. how to change centimeters to millimeters
    K H Da U D C M
Card Set
Chemistry Test 6
Chemistry Abeka Test 6 Chapters 1-9