1. dyspnea:
    • shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
    • caused by physical exertion pulmonary edema cardiac conditions and lung pathology
  2. aspiration:
    aspiration in adults:
    • mechanical obstruction of foreign object lodge into the air passages of the bronchial tree most common in children
    • adults is most common with food particles creating coughing and gaggin
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    aspiration of fluid
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    aspiration of berium enema
  5. atelectasis:
    tech factors should be _____?
    • a collapse of all or a portion of the lung occurs as a result of an obstruction of the bronchus or a puncture or blowout of an air passageway
    • increased density caused by airless portions of lung
    • must increase tech factors
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    atelectasis (lung is peeled off and is stiking together at bottom
  7. what is also another term for lung collapsing
  8. bronchiectasis:
    what can collected in the dilated regions resulting in increased density
    what substance increases
    technical factors must ____
    • irreversible dilation or widening of the bronchi or bronchioles resulting from repeated pulmonary infection or obstructions
    • pus collects in these regions
    • mucous production
    • tech factors must increase
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  10. cystic fibrosis:
    is this disease inherited?
    in severe condition tech factors must _____
    • secretions of heavy mucus cause progressive yes the most common inherited disease clogging of bronchi and bronchiles
    • increase
  11. bronchitis
    what is the cause
    infectious bronchitis is caused by what
    bronchitis generally affects what area of the lungs most?
    • a condition in which excess mucus is secreted into the bronchi creating cough and shortness of breath
    • ciggarette smoking
    • bacteria or virus
    • lower lobes demonstrated by hyperinflation and more dominant lung markings
  12. COPD
    what is the cause
    • chronic obstructive pulmonary disese
    • a form of persistent obstruction of airway as caused by either emphysema or chronic bronchitis
    • smoking is the predominant cause)
  13. emphysema
    technical factors must be ____
    • an irreversible chronic lung disease in which alveoli air spaces become greatly enlarged as a result of alveolar and loss of alveolar elasticity
    • overexpansion of the lungs and cannot exhale

    decreased b/c appearance is radiolucent so tissue is easier to penetrate
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  15. neoplasm
    most common benign lung tumor is called
    • "new growth" refers to a tumour
    • harartoma
  16. pulmonary edema
    what does it look like radiographically
    • abnormal accumulation of fluid in the exravascular tissues
    • butterfly or a bats wing
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    pulmonary edema
  18. pneumothorax
    caused by?
    • an accumulation of air in the pleural space causing a partial or complete collapse of that lung resulting in immediate and severe shortness of breath
    • trauma or a pathological reason
  19. to look for fluid levels if the patient cannot stand how should we position
    position the lung with the fluid on the side down
  20. pleural effusion
    umbrella of diseases that cause a condition of abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity
  21. hydropneumothorax
    an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space causing partial or complete collapse of that lung resulting in immediate and sever shortness of breath
  22. list 4 types pleural effusion
    all need an increased in tech factors except
    • empyema fluid is pus in lungs
    • hemothorax - fluid is blood in lungs
    • pleurisy - characterized by inflammation (cause by virus or bacteria) of pleura surrounding of the lung
    • pneumonia

    pleurisy no increase in tech factors
  23. pneumonia
    pneumonia - an imflammation of the lungs resulting in an accumulation of fluid within certain sections of lung creating radiodensities in these regions
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    left pleural effusion
  25. tuberculosis
    what is an important radiographic sign of primary tb
    • a contagious disease caused by airborne bacteria
    • hilar enlargement along with medistinal lymph nodes 
    • small focal spot lesions may be found anywhere in the lungs and unilateral pleural effusion is common 
  26. what is the occupation lung disease
    • pneumoconiosis: caused by long term inhalation of coal asbestos or silica (quartz) dust
    • causes small radioopaque spots or conglomerate masses on the chest radiograph
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