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  1. Ionotropy
  2. Chronotropy
    Heart rate
  3. Dromotropy
    Drugs that affect conduction velocity
  4. Truncas Arteriosus (T)
    Aorta, Pulmonary Trunk
  5. Bulbus cordis (B)
    Smooth parts of R and L Ventricles
  6. Primitive Ventricle (PV)
    Trabeculated part of R and L ventricles
  7. Primitive atrium (PA)
    Trabeculated part of R and L atrium
  8. Sinus venosus (SV)
    Smooth part of R atrium, coronary sinus
  9. What muscles are in the R atrium?
  10. What muscles are in the R ventricle?
    Trabeculae carnae, papillary muscles, moderator band,
  11. What are the 4 events that occur during Week 4-5 for the heart?
    • Atrial and Ventricular Septation
    • Remodeling of the Outflow tracts
    • Endocardial cushions AV canals
  12. Tetralogy of Fallot
    • Ventricular septal defect
    • Pulmonary stenosis
    • Aortic overriding
    • Ventricular hypertrophy
  13. Ductus venosus
    Umbilical vein to Inferior vena cava
  14. Foramen ovale
    From R to L atrium
  15. Ductus arteriosus
    From pulmonary trunk to aorta
  16. What are the remnants of ductus venosus?
    Ligamentum venosum
  17. What are the remnants of foramen ovale?
    Fossa ovalis
  18. What are the remnants of ductus arteriosus?
    Ligamentum arteriosum
  19. Where do blood islands lie in and when do they develop?
    Cardiogenic field and Week 3
  20. Which viral infection is known to cause CHD's and which ones?
    • Rubella¬†
    • VSD, PDA, Tetralogy of Fallot
  21. What are the clinical features of R --> L shunt?
    • Long term cyanosis
    • Clubbing of the fingers
    • Polycythemia
  22. What is the most feared complication of the right ventricular hypertrophy?
    • Late Cyanotic CHD
    • Significant irreversible pulmonary HTN develops, structural defects of the CHD are considered irreversible
  23. What is common to children w/ diabetic moms?
    Transposition of the Great Vessels
  24. What is Pericarditis always associated with pathologically?
    For viral infections? For bacterial infections?
    • Exudation of fluid into the pericardial sac
    • Clear yellow in serous pericarditis for viral infections
    • Purulent exudate for bacterial infections caused by pus forming staph or strep
  25. What is serofibrinous exudate associated with?
    Severe damage (like Rheumatic Fever or in early bacterial infections)
  26. What most likely causes Myocarditis?
    Virus - Coxsackie B virus
  27. Aschoff Bodies
  28. What also comes to the Myocardium after the virus takes over and what does it secrete?
    • T-Lymphocytes
    • Secretes lymphokines (Interleukins and TNF)
  29. Tiger Effect
    Viral Myocarditis
  30. Viral Myocarditis
    • Coxsackie B Virus
    • T-Lymphocytes - Lymphokines
    • Pale and congested areas
    • Tiger Effect
    • Flabby and dilated heart
    • Recover
    • Endomyocardial Biopsy (Punch Biopsy)
    • No specific tx
    • Supportive measures
  31. What causes ABE? SBE?
    • ABE --> Staph a.
    • SBE --> Strep m., Strep viridans
  32. Acute Bacterial Endocarditis
    • Highly destructive infection of the valves
    • Previously normal heart valve
    • High virulent organisms
    • Staph A or Gr-
  33. What is the foremost factor predisposing to the development of Infective Endocarditis?
    Seeding of the blood from microbes due to infection elsewhere
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