quick review of cell cycle and cancer

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  1. what is occurring in a cell during interphase?
    metabolic functions
  2. Chromatids are made of a molecule called _____.
  3. define each stage and what phase is in them:
    • G1- Cell growth~ interphase
    • S- Cell replication ~ interphase
    • G2- Preparation for mitosis~ interphase
    • M- Cell division~ Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis
    • G0- Alive cells do not divide, they just sit there till they die
  4. from what phase do cells sometimes exit?
  5. Mitosis is division of ______, while Cytokinesis is the division of ______.
    • Nucleus
    • Cytoplasm
  6. final and shortest interphase
  7. what process is used for bacteria to divide and reproduce
    Binary Fission
  8. Body cells are called _____ cells, while reproductive cells are known as _____ cells.
    • somatic
    • germ
  9. How does cytokinesis occur in animal cells?
    Formation of a cleavage furrow
  10. how does cytokinesis occur in a plant cell?
    formation of a cell plate
  11. what are two things broken down during prophase?
    Nucleus and nucleolus
  12. What forms during prophase that LATER attaches and moves chromosomes?
    spindle fibers
  13. Name of genes that control the cell cycle?
    Cell cycle Regulators
  14. Benign-
    • Benign- not cancerous
    • malignant- cancerous
  15. how do cancer cells spread to the rest of the body?
    by mutation of genes that are responsible for cell death
  16. Tumor?
    when cells don't respond to signals that regulate the growth of most cells and divide uncontrollably and form masses of cells
  17. some causes of cancer
    smoking tobacco, radiation exposure, and viral infections
  18. How can genetics cause cancer?
    could be predisposition that is inherited from family members.
  19. how does a virus cause cancer?
    if it becomes infected
  20. What is binary fission
    A cell divides giving rise to two cells, each having the potential to grow to the size of the original cell

    How bacteria reproduce
  21. 2 types of fibers making up the mitotic spindle and descriptions
    kinetochore fiber- attach to disk shape proteins

    Polar fiber- extend across the divining cell from centrosome to centrosome but do not attach to chromosomes
  22. repeating subunits that make up DNA
  23. 3 parts of a DNA nucleotide
    a phosphate group, deoxyribose, and a nitrogen base
  24. 4 nitrogen bases in DNA
    adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine
  25. what acts as a template in DNA replication?
  26. Replication fork?
    the DNA helicase untwists the helix at the replication origin, which forms a y shape
  27. what enzymes help separate 2 strands of nucleotides on DNA? what bonds do they break?
    • Helicase.
    • Hydrogen Bonds
  28. Function of DNA polymerase
    joins individual nucleotides to produce DNA molecule
  29. movement infatuating the base
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quick review of cell cycle and cancer
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