Speech science Chapter 10

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  1. How does the vocal tract modify the glottal tone
    By changing vocal tract resonances as it passes through the articulators: larynx and vocal tract
  2. The speech sound wave is the result of:
    • The fundamental frequency and harmonics
    • The resonant frequencies of the vocal tract
  3. Vocal tract resonances
    • cause sound energy in tract to peak at the specific tract resonances.
    • Frequencies not at the resonances lose energy and are depressed
  4. Formants
    peaks in the speech sound resonances
  5. Tongue movement:
    • Forward - lengthens the vertical sections of the vocal tract
    • backward - lengthens the horizontal sections of the vocal tract
    • Up - changes the shape of the connecting tube of the horizontal aspects of the vocal tract
    • Down - changes the shape of the connecting tube of the vertical aspects of the vocal tract
  6. lips
    modify the vocal tract by lengthening or shortening the tract
  7. Changes in vocal tract determine
    • the energy peaks of our speech sounds
    • which is responsible for our perception of which speech sound is being produced
  8. Vowel quadralateral
    is a graphic depiction of speech sounds produced by various tongue positions and the corresponding vocal tract configurations
  9. Average vowel formant frequencies note what?
    the relationship of f1 and f2
  10. What are Diphthongs
    vowels that change resonance and thus changes formant sturcture
  11. Major Articulators
    • Lips
    • Maxilla
    • Mandible
    • Teeth
    • hard palate
    • alveolar ridge
    • soft palate
    • tongue
  12. Children's teeth
    • Children have 20:
    • Central incisor
    • Lateral incisor
    • Canine
    • First molar
    • Second molar
  13. Adults' teeth
    • Central incisor
    • Lateral incisor
    • Canine
    • First bicuspid (premolar)
    • Second bicuspid (premolar)
    • First molar
    • Second molar
    • Third molar (Wisdom tooth)
  14. The purpose of hard palate
    separates oral from nasal cavities. provides structure for dentition
  15. Parts of the hard palate
    • Palatine process of maxilla
    • Alveolar Ridge
    • Rugae
    • Midline Raphe
  16. soft palate
    • modifies resonance of the vocal tract
    • A muscular - fibroelastic structure that attaches to the hard palate via the palatal aponeurosis
    • Functions as a valve to the velopharyngeal port
  17. Velopharyngeal port is raised during
    • Vowel sound production
    • Most consonant sound production
  18. when is the velopharyngeal port lowered
    • Nasal sound production
    • Normal breathing
  19. List the 5 muscles of the soft palate and  functions
    • Its five muscles elevate, depress, and tense the soft palate
    • Glosopalatine and pharyngopaltine -depresses soft palate
    • Levator Palatini and Uvular - elevate the soft palate

    • ○       
    • Tensior Palatini - Depresses and tenses the soft palate

    Dysfunction of the soft palate
  20. Dysfunctions of the soft palate
    • Birth Defect - Velopharyngeal incompetence and onsufficiency
    • Neurological or anatomical issues -cerebrovascular accident, developmental disorder, bifed uvula, submucous cleft
    • Cleft Palate - excessive nasalance, poor articulation, nasal regurgitation
    • Velopharyngeal incompetence - Excessive nasalance, poor articulation
  21. Primary functions of tongue
    • Primary functions are taste, mastication, and
    • deglutition
    • Most important articulator for speech production
  22. Tongue division
    • Tip: Nearest the front teeth
    • Blade: Below alveolar ridge
    • Front: Beneath the hard palate
    • Back: Beneath the soft palate
    • Root: Furthest back and bottom of tongue forming the anterior wall of pharynx - attaches to hyoid bone
  23. Surface of the tongue
    • Longitudinal median sulcus
    • Papillae
    • Lingual frenulum
  24. intrinsic tongue muscles
    • Superior longitudinal - shortens the tongue
    • Inferior longitudinal - shortens the tongue
    • Transverse muscles - narrow/elongate the tongue
    • Vertical muscles - flatten/widen the tongue
  25. Extrinsic tongue mucsles
    • Genioglossus - draws tongue anteriorly and can draw it downward to make a trough
    • Hyoglossus - retracts and depresses the tongue; can also elevate the hyoid bone
    • Styloglossus - draws tongue upward and backward - antagonist to the genioglossus
    • Palatoglossus - lowers soft palate or raises tongue back to groove the dorsum of the tongue
  26. Waldeyer's Ring: Purpose
    • a defense mechanism against bacterial infection
    • Organisms trapped in the tonsillar crypts appear as whitish masses
    • Chronic repeated infections can result in disease of the adenoids, eustachian tube, and middle ears
  27. What does the waldeyer's ring consist of?
    • Lingual tonsils
    • Pharyngeal Tonsil (Adenoid Tissue)
    • Palatine tonsils
    • Tubal tonsils
  28. Enlarged adenoids
    • may affect the production of speech sounds
    • contribute to voice problems and mouth breathing
    • Contribute to velopharyngeal closure which may lead to hypernasality, hyponasality and if hyponasal, after surgery there may be 
    • permanent hypernasality
Card Set
Speech science Chapter 10
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