Anatomy and Physiology

  1. Anatomy
    the study of the structure (morphology, form) of body parts
  2. Physiology
    the study of the function of body parts
  3. Anatomy dictates_____.
  4. Function follows____!
  5. The ______-____ relationship holds at every level; although some changes in form affect function, others do not.
    structure function
  6. Homeostasis
    the tendency of organisms to regulate and maintain relative internal stability
  7. Blaude Bernard (1872)
    • the milieu interieur
    • "constancy of the internal environment is the condition of life"
  8. Walter B. Cannon (1871-1945)
    sympathetic "flight or fight" response "Homeostasis"
  9. Structures are linked to______.
  10. atom
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • smallest partivle of an element
    • react together to form molecules
  11. molecule
    • carbon dioxide
    • water
    • a particle composed of 2 or more joined atoms
    • combine with others to form macromolecules
  12. macromolecules
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • nucleic acids
    • a large molecule
    • combine with others to form organelles
  13. organelles
    • cell membrane
    • nucleus
    • ribosomes
    • a small organ of a cell which performs a particular function
    • collectively compose cells
  14. cells
    basic unit of structure and function of living organisms!

    each cell has a set of organelles and performs a particular function

    (ie a red blood cell has a biconcave shape and is a nucleate)

    this structure increases its surface area, allowing for the transport of more oxygen

    similar ones are arranged into tissues
  15. tissues
    • epithelia
    • connective
    • muscle
    • nervous

    group of similar cells that performs a specialized function

    two or more combine to form organs
  16. organs
    • skin
    • heart
    • brain

    structure consisting of a group of tissues that performs a specialized function two or more combine to form organ systems
  17. organ systems
    • integuentary
    • cardiovascular

    a group of organs that act together to carry on a specialized function

    there are 11 of these and they form the human organism
  18. human organism
    the most complex level of organization and is defined as an individual living thing
  19. The levels of hierarchy could be further extended to include;
    • populations
    • communities
    • ecosystems
    • biosphere
  20. Body Systems
    Groups of organs that perform related functions and interact to accomplish a common activity essential to survival of the whole body

    Do not act in isolation from one another

    Human body has 11 systems
  21. Circulatory system
    • heart
    • blood
    • blood vessels
  22. Digestive system
    • mouth
    • pharynx
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
    • salivary glands
    • exocrine pancreas
    • liver
    • gallbladder
  23. Respiratory system
    • nose
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchi
    • lungs
  24. Urinary system
    • kidneys
    • ureterss
    • urinary bladder
    • urethra
  25. skeletal system
    • bones
    • cartilage
    • joints
  26. Muscular system
    skeletal muscles
  27. Integumentary system
    • hair
    • skin
    • nails
  28. Immune system
    • lymph nodes
    • thymus
    • bone marrow
    • tonsils
    • adenoids
    • spleen
    • appendix
    • white blood cells
    • gut-associated lymphoid tissue
    • skin-associated lymphoid tissue
  29. Nervous system
    • brain
    • spinal cord
    • peripheral nerves
    • special sense organs
  30. Endocrine system
    • All hormone secreting tissues
    • hypothalamus
    • pituitary
    • thryroid
    • adrenals
    • endocrine pancreas
    • gonads
    • kidneys
    • pineal
    • thymus
    • parathyroids
    • intestine
    • heart
    • skin
  31. Reproductive system
    • Male: testes
    • penis
    • prostate fland
    • seminal vesicles
    • bulbourethral glands
    • associated ducts

    • Female: ovaries
    • oviducts
    • uterus
    • vagina
    • breasts
  32. circulatory system fucntion
    transport of blood throughout the body's tissues
  33. Respiratory system function
    • exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen
    • regulation of hydrogen ion concentration
  34. digestive system function
    digestion and absorption of organic nutrients, salts, and water
  35. Urinaty sustem function
    Regulation of plasma composition through controlled excretion of salts water and organic wastess
  36. Musculoskeletal
    • support protection and movement of the body
    • production of blood cells
  37. Immune system function
    • defense against foreign invaders
    • return of extracellular fluid to blood
    • formation of white blood cells
  38. Nervous system function
    • Regulation and coordination of many activities in the body
    • detection of changes in the internal and external environments
    • states of consciousness
    • learning
    • cognition
  39. Endocrine
    Regulation and coordination of many activities in the body including growth metabolism reproduction blood pressure electrolyte balance and others
  40. Reproductive
    • Production of sperm
    • transfer of sperm to female
    • production of effs
    • provision of eggs
    • provision of a nutritive environment for the developing embryo and fetus
    • nutrition of the infant
  41. Integumentary
    • protection against injury and dehydration
    • defense against foreign invaders
    • regulation of temperature
  42. B
  43. Basic Cell Functions
    • -obtain nutrients and oxygen from surrounding environment
    • - perform chemical reactions that provide energy for the cell
    • -eliminate carbon dioxide and other wastes to surrounding environment
    • -synthesize needed cellular components
    • - reproduction
    • -exception: nerve cells and muscle cells lose their ability to reproduce during their early development
    • -Sensing and responding to changes in surrounding environment
    • -control exchange of materials between cell and its surroumding environment
  44. Homeostasis does not mean
    that composition temperature and other characteristics are absolutely unchanging

    essential for survival and funtion of all cells

    each cells contributes to maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment
  45. Body cells are in contained in ______ _____ _______ through which life sustaining exchanges are made
    watery internal environment
  46. Extracellular fluid(ECF)
    fluid environment in which the cells live (fluid outisde the cells)
  47. Two components of extracellular fluid

    interstitial fluid
  48. Intracellular fluid
    fluid contained within all body cells
  49. ICF--->ISF---->plasma---->organs----->external environment
  50. ECF=
    ISF + plasma
  51. liters of interstitial fluid
  52. liters of plasma
  53. liters of Intracellular fluid
  54. _____&_____ are key concept for understanding physiological homeostasis
    exchange and communication
  55. Homeostasis involves dynamic mechanisms that detect and respond to deviation in physiological variables from their "____ ______" values by initiating effector responses that restore the cariables to the optimal physiological range.
    set point
  56. Two systems that maintain homeostasis are
    Nervous system

    Endocrine system
  57. Nervous system
    • controls and coordinates bodily activities that require rapid responses
    • detects and initiates reaction to changes in external environment
  58. Endocrine system
    secreting glands of endocrine regulate activities that require duration rather than speed

    controls concentration of nutrients and by adjusting kidney function controls internal environment's volume and electrolyte composition
  59. Concentration of O2 in Homeostasis
  60. Concentration of CO2 in Homeostasis
  61. pH in Homeostasis
  62. Blood volume in homeostasis
  63. pressure in homeostasis
  64. Homeostasis is continually being disrupted ny
    • External stimuli
    • Internal stimuli
  65. External stimuli
    • heat
    • cold
    • lack of oxygen
    • pathogens
    • toxins
  66. Internal Stimuli
    • body temperature
    • blood pressure
    • concentration of water glucose salts oxygen etc.
    • physical and psychological distresses
  67. If homeostasis is not maintained what can result
  68. the disruptions in homeostasis can be
    mild to severe
  69. Feedforward
    terms used for responses made in anticipation of a change
  70. Feedback
    responses made after change has been detected
  71. Types of feedback systems
    • negative
    • positive
  72. Negative feedback loop
    • original stimulus reversed
    • most feedback systems in the body are ____
    • used for conditions that need frequent adjustment
  73. Positive feedback loop
    • original stimulus intensified
    • seen during normal child birth
  74. Receptor
    structures that monitor a controlled condition and detect changes in a feedback loop
  75. control center
    determines next action in the feedback loop
  76. Effector
    • receives directions from the control center
    • produces a response that restores the controlled conditions in the feedback loop
  77. Effectors
    "effect" cause responses
  78. Afferent pathways
    "affect" (influence) decisions about what happens next
  79. Integrating center--->
    • effector
    • response
    • efferent pathway
    • negative feedback

    • stimulus
    • receptor
    • afferent pathway
  80. Negative feedback system
    • prevents sudden severe changes in body
    • corrects the set point
    • causes opposite of bodily disruption to occur
    • limits chaos in the body by creating stability
    • most common type of feedback loop
    • examples body temperature, blood pressure and glucose regulation
  81. Positive feedback system
    • increases (accelerates) the actions of the body
    • produces more instability in the body
    • produces more chaos in the body
    • only a few types necessary for survival
    • short lived
    • controls only infrequent events that do not require continuous adjustments
    • the uncommon loop
    • examples: blood clotting and child birth
  82. Positive feedback during childbirth
    • stretch receptors in walls of uterus send signals to the brain
    • brain induces release of hormone oxytocin into bloodstream
    • uterine smooth muscle contracts more forcefully
    • more stretch more hormone more contraction
    • cycle ends with birth of the baby and decrease in stretch
  83. homeostasis requires
  84. When in balance homeostasis input = output results in a dynamic steady state which is
    not equilibrium
  85. Equilibrium is
    a stagnent state in which there is no potential energy remaining so only passive processes can occur
  86. Equilibrium does not need
  87. Active product controls the sequence of chemical reactions by
    inhibiting the sequence's rate-limiting enzyme, Enzyme A
  88. endocrine
    signals reach often-distant targets after transport in blood
  89. paracrine
    signals reach neighboring cells via the ISF
  90. autocrine
    signals affect the cell that synthesized them
Card Set
Anatomy and Physiology
Chapter 1