Neuro Brainstem

  1. The brainstem is divided longitudinally into what two sections?
    • Basilar (anterior) - motor
    • Tegmentum (posterior) - sensory, level of neural activity, and CN functions
  2. Which section of the brainstem is involved in reflexive control of intrinsic and extrinsic eye muscles?
    Tectum - located in the midbrain, also involved in movements of the head
  3. What structure regulates somatic motor activity, autonomic function, and consciousness?
    Reticular formation
  4. Which structure modulates nociceptive/pain information?
    Reticular formation
  5. T/F All descending tracts are contralateral.
    TRUE - they all cross over at some point
  6. If a patient has a coma, there is likely damage to what structure?
    Reticular formation
  7. What structure provides dopamine to cerebral areas important in motivation and decision-making?
    Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) - DOPAMINE!!
  8. The VTA releases what neurotransmitter?
  9. The PPM releases what neurotransmitter?
  10. Damage to the PPN causes what?
    Influence movement (gait, balance) and sleep problems
  11. Most of the cells producing serotonin are found in what structure of the brainstem?
    Raphe Nuclei - affects mood
  12. Serotonin
    Affects mood, released from the raphe nuclei
  13. Dopamine
    Motivation, decision-making

    Released from VTA
  14. ACh
    Released in PPN

    Influences movement (gait, balance) and sleep problems
  15. What structure releases norepinephrine?
    Locus coeruleus

    Active when a person is attentive. Vigilance, concentration. Inactive during sleep.
  16. VTA releases what neurotrans?
  17. PPN releases what neurotrans?
  18. Locus coeruleus releases what neurotrans?
  19. Raphe nuclei releases what neurotrans?
  20. T/F Most lateral corticospinal axons cross the midline in the pyramidal decussation at the inferior border of the medulla.
  21. What is the function of the medial longitudinal fasciculus?
    Coordinates eyes and head movements
  22. What are the main functions of the medulla?
    CN XII XI X IX - moves tongue, turns head, elevates shoulders, sensory of posterior tongue, viscera, swallowing, gag reflex, cardiovasc, respiratory, control of eye movements
  23. Where do the corticopontine tracts synapse?
  24. What are the three segments of the midbrain?
    • Basis pedunculi
    • Tegmentum
    • Tectum
  25. What is the purpose of the cerebellum?
    • Motor planning
    • Coordination of movement
    • Rapid, voluntary shifts in attention
  26. What are the cardinal signs of brainstem dysfunction?
    • Dysphagia - difficulty swallowing
    • Dysarthria - difficulty speaking
    • Diplopia - double vision
    • Dysmetria - inability to control distance of movements
  27. The anterior (basilar) section of the brainstem contains what?
    Descending axons from the cerebral cortex
  28. The posterior (tegmentum) section of the brainstem contains which structures?
    • Reticular formation
    • Ascending sensory tracts
    • Cranial nerve nuclei
    • Medial longitudinal fasciculus
  29. What are two of the main functions of the reticular formation?
    • Regulation of vital functions
    • Regulation of somatic motor activity by the reticulospinal tracts
  30. Where are the sensory or autonomic nuclei located for CN VII-X?
    Dorsal rostral medulla
  31. UMN input to the facial nerve is contra or ipsilateral?
    CONTRALATERAL - Paresis of the lower left face with normal function of both eyes indicates a lesion in the UMN pathway from the right cerebral cortex

    *LMN lesion would be the entire ipsilateral face
  32. What structure? --> Part of the midbrain
    posterior to the cerebral aqueduct, consisting of the pretectal area and the
    superior and inferior colliculi; involved in reflexive movements of the eyes
    and head.
  33. What structure? --> Posterior part of the
    brainstem, including sensory nuclei and tracts, reticular formation, cranial
    nerve nuclei, and the medial longitudinal fasciculus.
Card Set
Neuro Brainstem
Brainstem Ch. 15