The brainstem is divided longitudinally into what two sections?
Basilar (anterior) - motor
Tegmentum (posterior) - sensory, level of neural activity, and CN functions
Which section of the brainstem is involved in reflexive control of intrinsic and extrinsic eye muscles?
Tectum - located in the midbrain, also involved in movements of the head
What structure regulates somatic motor activity, autonomic function, and consciousness?
Which structure modulates nociceptive/pain information?
T/F All descending tracts are contralateral.
TRUE - they all cross over at some point
If a patient has a coma, there is likely damage to what structure?
What structure provides dopamine to cerebral areas important in motivation and decision-making?
Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) - DOPAMINE!!
The VTA releases what neurotransmitter?
The PPM releases what neurotransmitter?
Damage to the PPN causes what?
Influence movement (gait, balance) and sleep problems
Most of the cells producing serotonin are found in what structure of the brainstem?
Raphe Nuclei - affects mood
Affects mood, released from the raphe nuclei
Released from VTA
Released in PPN
Influences movement (gait, balance) and sleep problems
What structure releases norepinephrine?
Active when a person is attentive. Vigilance, concentration. Inactive during sleep.
VTA releases what neurotrans?
PPN releases what neurotrans?
Locus coeruleus releases what neurotrans?
Raphe nuclei releases what neurotrans?
T/F Most lateral corticospinal axons cross the midline in the pyramidal decussation at the inferior border of the medulla.
What is the function of the medial longitudinal fasciculus?
Coordinates eyes and head movements
What are the main functions of the medulla?
CN XII XI X IX - moves tongue, turns head, elevates shoulders, sensory of posterior tongue, viscera, swallowing, gag reflex, cardiovasc, respiratory, control of eye movements
Where do the corticopontine tracts synapse?
What are the three segments of the midbrain?
What is the purpose of the cerebellum?
Coordination of movement
Rapid, voluntary shifts in attention
What are the cardinal signs of brainstem dysfunction?
Dysphagia - difficulty swallowing
Dysarthria - difficulty speaking
Diplopia - double vision
Dysmetria - inability to control distance of movements
The anterior (basilar) section of the brainstem contains what?
Descending axons from the cerebral cortex
The posterior (tegmentum) section of the brainstem contains which structures?
Ascending sensory tracts
Cranial nerve nuclei
Medial longitudinal fasciculus
What are two of the main functions of the reticular formation?
Regulation of vital functions
Regulation of somatic motor activity by the reticulospinal tracts
Where are the sensory or autonomic nuclei located for CN VII-X?
Dorsal rostral medulla
UMN input to the facial nerve is contra or ipsilateral?
CONTRALATERAL - Paresis of the lower left face with normal function of both eyes indicates a lesion in the UMN pathway from the right cerebral cortex
*LMN lesion would be the entire ipsilateral face
What structure? --> Part of the midbrain
posterior to the cerebral aqueduct, consisting of the pretectal area and the
superior and inferior colliculi; involved in reflexive movements of the eyes
What structure? --> Posterior part of the
brainstem, including sensory nuclei and tracts, reticular formation, cranial
nerve nuclei, and the medial longitudinal fasciculus.