Chapter 12

  1. What is Phytophthora infestans?
    It is a microorganism that is a eukaryote and it causes potato famine.
  2. What types of microorganisms are eukaryotes?
    • Fungi
    • Algae
    • Protozoans
    • Helminths
  3. Describe the Schistosoma mansoni cercariae.
    • It is a eukaryote helminth.
    • It burrows into its' hosts.
    • Has lots of different hosts and makes their host do strange things.
  4. What are the external structures of a eukaryote?
    • Flagella
    • Cilia
    • Capsules
    • Slimes
    • Glycocalyx
  5. What serves as a boundary on the eukaryote cell?
    • Cell wall
    • Plasma membrane
  6. What are internal structures of a eukaryotic cell?
    • Nucleus
    • Cytosol
    • Organelles
    • Ribosomes
    • Cytoskeleton
  7. What is a fungi's cell wall composed of?
    Fungi have a thick inner layer of polysaccharide fibers composed of chitin or cellulose and a thick outer layer of glycans.
  8. Fungi and algae cell walls are rigid to provide?
    Support and shape.
  9. What does an algae cell wall consist of?
    Algae often have cellulose, pectin, mannose (sugar), silicon dioxide, calcium carbonate.
  10. Do yeast have cell walls?
  11. What does the plasma membrane contain in a eukaryote?
    It contains sterols to give rigidity to membranes.
  12. Does every organism possess a plasma membrane?
  13. Extensive internal membranes and cytoplasmic invaginations can account for how much of the cell volume?
    60% to 80% of cell volume.
  14. What does the nucleus contain?
    It contains the DNA of the cell.
  15. What are the organelles of a eukaryotic cell?
    • Nucleus
    • Endoplasmin Reticulum
    • Golgi Apparatus
    • Mitochondria
    • Chloroplasts
    • Ribosomes
    • Cytoskeleton
  16. What are the Golgi Apparatus and the Endoplasmic Reticulum involved in?
    They are involved in proteins.
  17. What takes place in the mitochondria?
  18. What is mycology?
    The study of fungi.
  19. Most fungi are:
    Free living chemoheterotrophs that utilize extracellular enzymes to digest food.
  20. Are fungi saprobes?
  21. Fungi can be either
    Parasitic and/or pathogenic.
  22. What type of fungi is unicellular?
  23. How do yeast reproduce?
    They reproduce by budding.
  24. What is a multicellular fungi?
  25. Are unicellular yeast microscopic or macroscopic?
  26. Are multicellular fungi microscopic or macroscopic?
  27. What types of microorganisms are Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cereviseae?
    They are yeasts.
  28. Are Candida albicans pathogenic or nonpathogenic?
  29. What are Saccharomyces cereviseae used to make?
    They are used to make bread and alcoholic beverages.
  30. Yeast can be unicellular or
  31. What makes a yeast be dimorphic?
    It depends on their environmental conditions.
  32. Are Candida albicans unicellular or dimorphic?
    They are dimorphic.
  33. How do fission yeasts divide?
    They divide symmetrically.
  34. How do budding yeasts divide?
    They divide asymmetrically.
  35. What kind of cell types are there for fungi?
    • Hypha (plural is hyphae)
    • Yeast
  36. What polysaccharides make up hyphae?
    Chitin and glucan.
  37. What are the 2 forms of hyphae?
    Septate or aseptate.
  38. What is septate?
    • Cell walls form between fungal cells.
    • -They have breaks.
  39. What is aseptate?
    • There are no cell walls between cells.
    • -There are no breaks.
  40. What are the shape of yeasts?
    Oval or round.
  41. What type of reproduction do yeast have?
    Asexual reproduction by budding.
  42. What are pseudohyphae?
    Chains of yeast that are longer than regular buds.
  43. What is a mass of hyphae?
  44. What does the fungal thallus consist of?
  45. What is the portion of a hyphae that obtains nutrients?
    A vegetative hyphae.
  46. What portion of the hyphae is concerned with reproduction?
    Aerial hyphae.
  47. What helps to slow the growth of mold?
  48. Do molds have spores?
  49. How are fungal spores produced?
    Either sexual (zygospores) or asexual (ascospores) reproduction.
  50. What is a sporangium?
    A sporangium is a plant, fungal, or algal structure that produces and contains spores.
  51. Where are sporangiospores formed?
    Within a saclike head of a sporangium.
  52. What are free spores that are not enclosed by a sac called?
  53. Are zygospores or ascospores NOT involved in reproduction.
    • Ascospores-no reproduction.
    • Zygospores- in reproduction.
  54. What are "fungal infections"?
  55. How many classifications of mycoses are there?
  56. In mycoses, which group involves keratinized tissues?
    Superficial (keratinized tissues) - hair shafts - ringworm, fingernails.
  57. In mycoses, which group involves the fungal infection being spread throughout the entire body?
    Systemic (involving one or more internal organ systems, example: respiratory mycosis in HIV or otherwise immuno-compromised patients, such as chemotherapy patients.)
  58. In mycoses, which fungal infection is caused by normal microbiota or environmental fungi?
    • Opportunistic mycoses
    • -people with bad immune systems get this.
  59. What causes pneumonia?
    • Coccidiomycosis (systemic)
    • usually is not a big deal for peolpe that have good immune systems, but it can kill.
  60. What kingdom are Fungi in?
    Their own, Fungi.
  61. What type of nutrition do fungi need?
    They are chemoheterotrophs.
  62. How do fungi take in their food?
    By absorbing it.
  63. What are 2 characteristic features that fungi have?
    They have sexual and asexual spores.
  64. Are fungi more sexual or asexual?
  65. Bacteria and fungi are our main...
  66. Fungi are saprobes, therefore they are
  67. Fungi are used in industrial applications to decompose what?
    Food and beverages.
  68. What kind of relationship do plant roots and fungi share?
    A symbiotic relationship - the fungi help plants uptake nutrients that they can't do on their own.
  69. What is mycorrhizae?
    A symbiotic association between fungus and plant roots.
  70. Fungi can be pathogens in
    • Plants
    • Animals
    • Humans
  71. How many species of fungi are there?
    There are more than 100,000 species.
  72. How many of the 100,000 species of fungi are actually pathogenic?
    100 or so are pathogenic.
  73. At what temperature are pathogenic dimorphic fungi yeastlike?
    37 degrees Celcius.
  74. At what temperature are dimorphic fungi moldlike?
    25 degrees Celcius.
  75. What does dimorphic mean?
    Same organism, different shapes.
  76. Are conidiospores free or in a sack?
    They are free, not covered by a sack.
  77. Is conidia asexual or sexual reproduction?
    Asexual reproduction.
  78. What are arthroconidia?
    Conidia formed by the fragmentation of septate hyphae.
  79. What are blastoconidia?
    They are buds that protrude from the end of the parent cell.
  80. Where are blastoconidia found?
    Found in Candida albicans and Cryptococcus
  81. What is chlamydoconidia?
    A thick walled spore formed by rounding and enlargement within a hyphae segment.
  82. Are chlamydoconidia free or in a sack?
    They are free.
  83. Where are sporangiospores located?
    At the end of an aerial hyphae.
  84. What does 1N2N1N describe?
    Sexual reproduction (zygospores)
  85. What word does zygospore come from?
    Zygo- comes from Zygote.
  86. What do zygomycota produce?
    They produce sporangiospores and zygospores.
  87. Fusion of what kind of cells will produce one zygospore?
    Fusion of haploid cells.
  88. Are zygospores 1N or 2N?
    They are 2N.
  89. What is coenocytic?
    • Multiple nuclei without cell division.
    • - aseptate hyphae is an example.
  90. Rhizopus and Mucor are what type of mycoses?
    They are opportunistic and systemic.
  91. What is ascomycota?
    Sexual spores formed in an ascospore.
  92. Why is Penicillium economically and medically significant?
    It is used in antibiotics.
  93. Why is Saccaromyces economically and medically significant?
    Because it is used in bread and alcoholic beverages.
  94. What are 6 pathogenic ascomycota?
    • Aspergillus
    • Candida
    • Trychophyton
    • Pneumocytsis jiraveci
    • Histoplasma
    • Microsporum
  95. Who does Pneumocysis jiraveci infect?
    It infects AIDS patients.
  96. What is Ohio Valley Fever?
  97. What are Microsporum?
  98. What is produced for sexual reproduction?
    Basidia or basidiospores.
  99. What are produced for asexual reproduction?
  100. What do basidiomycota form?
    They form mushrooms.
  101. What are "club fungi"?
    • Basidiomycota
    • -this includes: mushrooms, toadstools, bracket fungi, rusts and smuts.
  102. Are basidiomycota pathogenic or nonpathogenic?
    Most are nonpathogenic, but many can produce toxins.
  103. What produces ergot on rye or other grains?
  104. Is Amanita a toxic or nontoxic mushroom?
    It is toxic.
  105. What can cause an invasive systemic mycosis that can infect the skin, brain, lungs, CSF, and bone marrow in humans?
    • Cryptococcus neoformans.
    • -it is an opportunistic mycoses.
  106. In asexual reproduction, how many chromosomes are produced?
    Half the amount that are produced in sexual reproduction.
  107. What color are edibile mushrooms?
  108. What color are toxic mushrooms?
  109. What does it typically mean it a mushroom has a ring under its roof?
    That it is a toxic mushroom.
  110. What is the under part of the mushroom called?
  111. What kingdom are protozoa in?
    They are in the protists kingdom.
  112. What kind of nutrition do protozoa need?
    They are chemoheterotrophs and some can be photoheterotrophs.
  113. Are protozoa muticellular or unicellular?
    They are unicellular.
  114. How do protozoa reproduce?
    They reproduce by mytosis.
  115. How do protozoa get their food?
    They absorb or ingest it.
  116. What are 2 characteristic features that protozoa have?
    They have motility and some can form cysts.
  117. What does the Kingdom Protista include?
    It includes protozoans and algae.
  118. What are classified as "photosynthetic protists"?
    Algae and protozoans.
  119. What is the main component of plankton in both fresh and salt water?
    Algae and protozoans.
  120. Are alot or a few algae harmful to humans?
    A few.
  121. Do algae participate in photosynthesis?
  122. What did the Red Tide cause?
    It caused dinoflagellates.
  123. What are dinoflagellates?
    They are flagellate protists.
  124. What is Pfiesteria piscicida?
    An organism caused by dinoflagellates that killed fish in the 70's and 80's.
  125. What is Prototheca?
    An organism caused by dinoflagellates that is a nonphotosynthetic algae associated with skin/intestines and subcutaneous infections in humans and animals.
  126. What caused the Red Tide?
  127. Prototheca is a nonphotosynthetic algae that has no chloroplasts and needs to get its nutrients from where?
  128. What is the motile feeding stage of protozoa?
  129. What type of reproducing do protozoan have?
    Asexual reproduction done by budding, fission, or schizogony.
  130. What is schizogony?
    It is multiple nuclear divisions followed by cytoplasmic divisions into several daughter cells.
  131. Some protozoa form cysts that
    form a protective capsule to survive unfavorable environments or long periods without a host to provide nutrients.
  132. What is a protozoa that is not motile and forms cysts?
  133. Will chlorine kill Cryptosporidium?
  134. Where are pathogenic protozoans located?
    The tropical and subtropical regions.
  135. What are 3 examples of pathogenic protozoans?
    • Malaria
    • Amoebic dysentery
    • Trypanosomes
  136. Protozoans reproduce asexually, usually by
  137. What are protozoans dependent upon?
    Water and most are aquatic.
  138. How do protozoans move?
    Most move by pseudopods, flagella, and/or cillia(made of microtubules).
  139. Is malaria motile or nonmotile?
  140. Where can trypanosomes be found?
    Inside the body.
  141. Where can Taxoplasma be found?
    Cat poop.
  142. Is Cryptosporidium on the rise or declining in numbers?
    It is on the rise.
  143. What is another name for Mastigophora?
  144. What are mastigophora?
    (also known as flagellata) They are motile by flagella and can live as endosymbionts or pathogens.
  145. A phylum unicellular heterotrophic protozoans from the protists kingdom are...
  146. What are also under the same phyla as mastigophora?
    Archaezoa, Apicomplexa, and Euglenozoa.
  147. What human pathogen is known for African Sleeping Sickness?
  148. What human pathogen is known for skin or systemic infection?
  149. What human pathogen is known for amoebic diarrhea?
  150. What human pathogen is known for vaginal infections?
  151. What do parasitic forms lack?
    They lack certain organelles: mitochondria and golgi bodies.
  152. How can someone get Giardia?
    By drinking dirty stream water.
  153. How can humans contract Leishmania?
    From sand flies.
  154. What are Sarcodinas?
  155. How are Sarcodinas motile?
    They are motile by means of pseudopodia.
  156. What does pseudopodia literally mean?
    It means "false feet".
  157. Are Sarcodina (amoebas) infectious?
    No, they are not pathogens.
  158. Foraminiferans and radiolarians (shelled amoeba) are from what group?
    Sarcodina (amoeba) group.
  159. What is Entamoeba histolytica?
    Amoebic dysentery or amoebic abscess.
  160. What do Acanthamoeba cause?
    They cause eye infections.
  161. If amoebas were inside our bodies, what would they be doing to our cells?
    They would be eating them and breaking them down.
  162. What are non-motile parasites that often require complex lifecycles involving primary and secondary hosts?
  163. Unlike protozoans, sporozoans dont have...
    Cillia or flagella.
  164. What is Plasmodium?
  165. What is Cryptosporidium?
    An intestinal parasite of mammals.
  166. What causes Toxoplasma?
    Toxoplasmosis causes it and it is contracted through infected meats, ingestion of cat feces that has the disease, or mother to fetus transmission.
  167. Where does the Plasmodium vivax reproduce?
    It reproduces in the salavary gland of mosquitos.
  168. In Plasmodium vivax, what is the definitive host?
    The mosquito.
  169. How are protozoans classified?
    • They are classified by the way that they move.
    • -ciliates
    • -flagellets
    • -amoebas
  170. How are Ciliates motile?
    They are motile by the means of cilia.
  171. Which is the largest population of movers in the protozoan group?
    Ciliates represent the largest population group of protozoans.
  172. What is the ONLY pathogenic ciliate?
    Balantidium coli.
  173. What does Balantidium coli infect and cause?
    It causes a type of dysentery and usually infects monkeys, pigs, and people around pigs. It lives in the colon and intestine.
  174. What are parasitic worms?
  175. Where do helminths live?
    Unlike external parasites like lice and fleas, they live inside their hosts.
  176. Parasitic worms (helminths) are...
  177. What are the 2 types of parasitic helminths?
    • 1. Flatworms
    • 2. Roundworms
  178. What is the scientific name of Flatworms?
  179. What is the scientific name of round worms?
    Aschelminthes or nematodes.
  180. What are cestodes?
    They are flatworms that are tapeworms and they are segmented.
  181. What are trematodes?
    They are flatworms that are fluxes that are not segmented.
  182. What are the shape of roundworms?
    Elongated, cylindrical, unsegmented bodies.
  183. Lifecycles of helminths are usually...
    Complicated involving at least one host and multiple stages in their lifecycles.
  184. What is the intermediate (secondary) host in a helminth life cycle?
    A host in which the parasitic larva develop.
  185. What is a definitive (final) host in a helminth life cycle?
    A host in which the parasite lives and reproduces as an adult.
  186. What is a transport host in a helminth life cycle?
    An intermediate host that experiences no parasitic development but is necessary for the parasite to complete its life cycle.
  187. How are humans able to be infected with helminths?
    • Food
    • Soil
    • Water
    • Infected Animals
  188. How do helminths infect humans?
    They infect them by mouth or by penetrating intact skin.
  189. In a helminth, most eggs do not make it to a host. What happens to them?
    They die.
  190. What type of helminth can produce about 200,000 eggs per day?
    Ascaris lumbricoides.
  191. Tapeworms have what type of segments that are loaded with eggs?
  192. What is Taenia saginata?
    The beef tapeworm.
  193. For the Taenia saginata, what would be the definitive host?
    Human or Cow
    Human would be the definitive host.
  194. What is Echinococcus granulosus?
    The dog tapeworm.
  195. For Echinococcus granulosus, what would be the intermediate host, human or dog?
    Human would be the intermediate host.
  196. What is heartworm disease in dogs called and what infects the dog with it?
    • Dirofilaria immitis.
    • Mosquitos bite the dogs and if they have the disease then they pass it on to them.
  197. What is Ascaris lumbricoides?
    The giant roundworm of humans. It is the largest and most common parasitic worm of humans. It is found in tropical and subtropical places.
  198. Are Ascaris lumbricoides hermaphrodites or male and female worms?
    They have male and female worms.
  199. In the life cycle of the Ascaris lumbricoides, what role do humans play?
    Humans play both an intermediate and a definitive host.
  200. How do Ascaris lumbricoides infect humans?
    They are ingested, they are then in the lungs where they are coughed up and reingested to the small intestine.
  201. What is Enterobious vermicularis, and what does it infect?
    It is a pin worm and it infects humans, mainly children, and consists mainly of itching of the butt. They are considered a nuisance, rather than a serious disease.
  202. Enterobious vermicularis have both...
    Male and female worms.
  203. How do human hookworms infect humans?
    They penetrate the foot, and travel to the intestine. They are very bad and eat the intestines.
  204. What are arthropods?
    • Animals with segmented bodies, exoskeletons, and jointed legs.
    • (insects like)
  205. What is a vector?
    A passer of a disease.
  206. What kingdom are arthropod vectors from?
  207. What phylum are arthropods?
    They are in the Arthropoda phylum.
  208. What Class are arthropod vectors in if they have 6 legs?
    • The insecta class.
    • -lice
    • -fleas
    • -mosquitoes
  209. What Class are arthropod vectors if they have 8 legs?
    • They are in the Arachnida class.
    • -mites
    • -ticks
  210. Arthropods as vectors transmit disease biologically, meaning...
    The microbe multiples in the vector.
  211. What diseases do ticks carry?
    Lymes disease and rocky mountian fever.
Card Set
Chapter 12