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Define whaty a macro mineral is?
Required in amounts greater than 100mg/day
Name the 6 macro minerals
4 functions fo calcium
- Mineralization of bone
- Blood clotting
- Nerve conduction
- Muscle contraction
Most feeds are relatively low in calcium, give 2 examples of those that are high
- Meat and bone meal
- meat meal
Name 3 calcium supplements. How available are these?
- Bone meal
- Dicalcium phosphate
These supplements are often close to 50% available as much of the calcium forms insoluble complexes in the GI
6 ways you can cause a calcium deficiency?
- Low Ca in feed
- Low absorbtion efficiency
- Vitamin D deficiency
- Abnormal Ca:P ration
- High dietary phosphorus
- High fat diets
How does vitamin D relate to calcium absorbtion?
Stimulates synthesis of calcium transport protein calbindin
Maximal calcium absorbtion occurs at what calcium to phosphorus ration?
High phosphorus levels lead to what in terms of calcium absorbtion?
High fecal calcium losses
Why do high fat diets result in less calcium absorbed?
Form soaps (saponification ( makes them insoluble)
2 symptoms of calcium deficiency?
What is milk fever
- High demand for Ca for milk synthesis
- nerve and muscle function impared
Treatment for milk fever?
2 ways you can upregulate calcium homeostasis to prevent milk fever?
- Feed low Ca diets in dry period
- Acidify diet with anionic salts to cause mild metabolic acidosis. - causes upregulation of PTH so when milk letdown comes already mobilizing the bone
How do you prevent cage layer fatigue?
Feed high Ca diets to build up reserves in bone
Does hypercalcemia often occur?
When calcium toxicity occurs what happens?
- Soft tissue calcification
What is phosphorus used in?
- Structural roles
- energy storage and transfer
- intracellular second messenger
2 sources of phosphorous? Elaborate each
- inorganic - mineral sources such as dicalcium phosphate
- organic - derived from animal and plant sources such as meat and bone meal
What is phytate?
Form of phosphorous very unavalable
How do you make it available?
Does phytate only reduce the availability of phosphorous?
No also all other multivalent cationsWhich form complexes with it
Enviropig does what?
Secretes phytase from salivary glands and therefore excretes less phosphorous
Name 2 signs of phosphorous deficiency that are the same as calcium and 2 that are different
Is a phosphorous toxicity common? When does it sometimes happen? What 2 common things does it result in?
- Kidney failure prevents excretion
- hypocalcemia, and kidney stones
Where is most magnesium found? What else is it used for?
- In the bone (70%)
- enzyme cofactor and allosteric activator
Magnesium deficiency most notably does what? Its often seen as what when?
- Interferes with function of CNS
- Grass tetany in the early spring from fast growing grasses on low Mg soil
Cations make diets ____ while anions make diets____
Where is Potassium used?
All nerves muscle and cardiac muscle contractility or excitability as well as main cation in intracellular fluid
Hypo and or hyperkalemia cause what?
Nerve and heart failure
Why dont we usually see K deficiencies in animals?
Usually sufficient in plants
Does high potassium help with milk fever?
No its bad it shuts down calcium homeostasis as a cation cause causes alkalinity
Where is chloride used?
Is elemental sulfer used by monogastrics?
NO require sulfer containing amino acids
What animals require sulfer supplementation?
Ruminants fed non protein nitrogen
Are we often more concerned with sulfer toxicity or deficiency?
Toxicity especially with the plains where it is high in the water
What does a sulpher toxicity do?
- Reduces copper availability and destroys thiamin (B vitamin important for metabolism)
- Sulfer is also seen high in DDS cause sulfuric added to kill bacteria
BY definition what is a micro mineral?
Requirement is less than 100mg/day
5 functions of iron?
- Cytochromes and other enzymes in e- transport
What is the transport form of iron? What regulates it?
- intracellular iron
What is the major storage form of iron?
Bacteria produce what to try and steal iron from us
is iron often free floating in the body?
What is lactoferrin and what does it do and wher eis it found?
- Iron binding protein
- binds iron makes it unavalable for bacteria
- found in milk tears saliva liver neutrophils etc to make these fluids tough on bacteria
When you have an infection what happens to iron uptake in the gut? Why? What about temp?
- to reduce amount of iron available for bacteria
- temperature increases to reduce efficiency fo bacterial siderophores
Most common symptom of iron deficiency?
Anemia is most common in what animal? Why? (3) How do we fix it?
- Low stores of iron at birth
- sows milk is low in iron
- High growth rate means high iron requirement
Intramuscular injection at birth
Iodine content in the feed varies on?
Amount in soil
Iodine is mostly needed for what?
Synthesis of thyroid hormones T3 and T4
Iodine concentrates wher ein the body?
Iodine deficiency leads to?
- Goiter, reduced T3/T4 and swelling of the neck because of hyperplasia
- Cretinism, stundted physical and mental growth due to weak T3 and T4
What can cause an iodine deficiency other than low iodine? Found where? How does it work? How can we fix it?
- Canola, mustard, cabbage
- prevents oxidation of iodine and blocks formation of T3 and T4
- Heat treatment inactivates this enzyme easily so always done with canola meal
Name 4 functions of copper?
- Ceruloplasmin - copper containing enzyme that oxidizes iron which is important for hemoglobin formation
- Transfer of iron to tissue
- Collagen formation
- Pigmentation (melanin production)
3 Signs of copper deficiency?
- Depigmentation of skin and hair due to abnormal melanin production (steely wool in sheep)
- Swayback or enzootic neonatal ataxia in lambs and calves (nervous disorder affecting use of limbs)
Is copper deficiency common? Why?
- Yes it is a major problem in western canada
- Low copper in soil and high sulfer and thomolydbate which forms insoluble copper and makes it unavailable
How do we fix copper deficiencies?
Major function of selenium?
- Cofactor for glutathione peroxidase
- thioredoxin reductase
- antioxidant selenoproteins
Selenium deficiency is a real problem what does it lead to? How is it fixed?
- White muscle disease
- Mulberry disease (malformed heart)
- Stiff lamb disease
Supplementation with organic forms
Is a selenium toxicity of concern? What can cause this?
- Yes selenium is the most toxic mineral (5ppm are toxic)
- Some plants accumulate Se to very toxic levels when grown on high Se soils
Chromium exists in several? Functions to do what? What sources are better absorbed?
- Oxidation states
- potentiates action of insulin (promotes insulin activity)
- Promotes anabolic actibvity
Organic forms are better