Nutrition lecture 9 - mineral nutrition

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  1. Define whaty a macro mineral is?
    Required in amounts greater than 100mg/day
  2. Name the 6 macro minerals
    • Sodium
    • Pottasium
    • magnesium
    • calcium
    • phosphorus
    • chlorine
  3. 4 functions fo calcium
    • Mineralization of bone
    • Blood clotting
    • Nerve conduction
    • Muscle contraction
  4. Most feeds are relatively low in calcium, give 2 examples of those that are high
    • Meat and bone meal
    • meat meal
  5. Name 3 calcium supplements. How available are these?
    • Bone meal
    • Limestone
    • Dicalcium phosphate

    These supplements are often close to 50% available as much of the calcium forms insoluble complexes in the GI
  6. 6 ways you can cause a calcium deficiency?
    • Low Ca in feed
    • Low absorbtion efficiency
    • Vitamin D deficiency
    • Abnormal Ca:P ration
    • High dietary phosphorus
    • High fat diets
  7. How does vitamin D relate to calcium absorbtion?
    Stimulates synthesis of calcium transport protein calbindin
  8. Maximal calcium absorbtion occurs at what calcium to phosphorus ration?
  9. High phosphorus levels lead to what in terms of calcium absorbtion?
    High fecal calcium losses
  10. Why do high fat diets result in less calcium absorbed?
    Form soaps (saponification ( makes them insoluble)
  11. 2 symptoms of calcium deficiency?
    • Rickets
    • osteoporosis
  12. What is milk fever
    • Hypocalcemia
    • High demand for Ca for milk synthesis
    • nerve and muscle function impared
  13. Treatment for milk fever?
    Subcutaneous injection
  14. 2 ways you can upregulate calcium homeostasis to prevent milk fever?
    • Feed low Ca diets in dry period
    • Acidify diet with anionic salts to cause mild metabolic acidosis. - causes upregulation of PTH so when milk letdown comes already mobilizing the bone
  15. How do you prevent cage layer fatigue?
    Feed high Ca diets to build up reserves in bone
  16. Does hypercalcemia often occur?
  17. When calcium toxicity occurs what happens?
    • Soft tissue calcification
    • osteopetrosis
  18. What is phosphorus used in?
    • Structural roles
    • energy storage and transfer
    • intracellular second messenger
  19. 2 sources of phosphorous? Elaborate each
    • inorganic - mineral sources such as dicalcium phosphate
    • organic - derived from animal and plant sources such as meat and bone meal
  20. What is phytate?
    Form of phosphorous very unavalable

    How do you make it available?

    Phytase enzymes
  21. Does phytate only reduce the availability of phosphorous?
    No also all other multivalent cationsWhich form complexes with it
  22. Enviropig does what?
    Secretes phytase from salivary glands and therefore excretes less phosphorous
  23. Name 2 signs of phosphorous deficiency that are the same as calcium and 2 that are different
    • Osteoporosis
    • rickets

    • Poor fertility
    • Pica
  24. Is a phosphorous toxicity common? When does it sometimes happen? What 2 common things does it result in?
    • Rare
    • Kidney failure prevents excretion
    • hypocalcemia, and kidney stones
  25. Where is most magnesium found? What else is it used for?
    • In the bone (70%)
    • enzyme cofactor and allosteric activator
  26. Magnesium deficiency most notably does what? Its often seen as what when?
    • Interferes with function of CNS
    • Grass tetany in the early spring from fast growing grasses on low Mg soil
  27. Cations make diets ____ while anions make diets____
    • Alakline
    • Acidic
  28. Where is Potassium used?
    All nerves muscle and cardiac muscle contractility or excitability as well as main cation in intracellular fluid
  29. Hypo and or hyperkalemia cause what?
    Nerve and heart failure
  30. Why dont we usually see K deficiencies in animals?
    Usually sufficient in plants
  31. Does high potassium help with milk fever?
    No its bad it shuts down calcium homeostasis as a cation cause causes alkalinity
  32. Where is chloride used?
    Gastric HCL
  33. Is elemental sulfer used by monogastrics?
    NO require sulfer containing amino acids
  34. What animals require sulfer supplementation?
    Ruminants fed non protein nitrogen
  35. Are we often more concerned with sulfer toxicity or deficiency?
    Toxicity especially with the plains where it is high in the water
  36. What does a sulpher toxicity do?
    • Reduces copper availability and destroys thiamin (B vitamin important for metabolism)
    • Sulfer is also seen high in DDS cause sulfuric added to kill bacteria
  37. BY definition what is a micro mineral?
    Requirement is less than 100mg/day
  38. 5 functions of iron?
    • Hemoglobin/myoglobin
    • Cytochromes and other enzymes in e- transport
    • monoxygenases
    • peroxidases
    • oxidoreductases
  39. What is the transport form of iron? What regulates it?
    • Transferrin
    • intracellular iron
  40. What is the major storage form of iron?
  41. Bacteria produce what to try and steal iron from us
  42. is iron often free floating in the body?
  43. What is lactoferrin and what does it do and wher eis it found?
    • Iron binding protein
    • binds iron makes it unavalable for bacteria
    • found in milk tears saliva liver neutrophils etc to make these fluids tough on bacteria
  44. When you have an infection what happens to iron uptake in the gut? Why? What about temp?
    • Drops
    • to reduce amount of iron available for bacteria
    • temperature increases to reduce efficiency fo bacterial siderophores
  45. Most common symptom of iron deficiency?
  46. Anemia is most common in what animal? Why? (3) How do we fix it?
    • Piglets
    • Low stores of iron at birth
    • sows milk is low in iron
    • High growth rate means high iron requirement

    Intramuscular injection at birth
  47. Iodine content in the feed varies on?
    Amount in soil
  48. Iodine is mostly needed for what?
    Synthesis of thyroid hormones T3 and T4
  49. Iodine concentrates wher ein the body?
    Thyroid gland
  50. Iodine deficiency leads to?
    • Goiter, reduced T3/T4 and swelling of the neck because of hyperplasia
    • Cretinism, stundted physical and mental growth due to weak T3 and T4
  51. What can cause an iodine deficiency other than low iodine? Found where? How does it work? How can we fix it?
    • Goitrogens
    • Canola, mustard, cabbage
    • prevents oxidation of iodine and blocks formation of T3 and T4
    • Heat treatment inactivates this enzyme easily so always done with canola meal
  52. Name 4 functions of copper?
    • Ceruloplasmin - copper containing enzyme that oxidizes iron which is important for hemoglobin formation
    • Transfer of iron to tissue
    • Collagen formation
    • Pigmentation (melanin production)
  53. 3 Signs of copper deficiency?
    • Anemia
    • Depigmentation of skin and hair due to abnormal melanin production (steely wool in sheep)
    • Swayback or enzootic neonatal ataxia in lambs and calves (nervous disorder affecting use of limbs)
  54. Is copper deficiency common? Why?
    • Yes it is a major problem in western canada
    • Low copper in soil and high sulfer and thomolydbate which forms insoluble copper and makes it unavailable
  55. How do we fix copper deficiencies?
    Injectable supplementation
  56. Major function of selenium?
    • Cofactor for glutathione peroxidase
    • thioredoxin reductase
    • antioxidant selenoproteins
  57. Selenium deficiency is a real problem what does it lead to? How is it fixed?
    • White muscle disease
    • Mulberry disease (malformed heart)
    • Stiff lamb disease

    Supplementation with organic forms
  58. Is a selenium toxicity of concern? What can cause this?
    • Yes selenium is the most toxic mineral (5ppm are toxic)
    • Some plants accumulate Se to very toxic levels when grown on high Se soils
  59. Chromium exists in several? Functions to do what? What sources are better absorbed?
    • Oxidation states
    • potentiates action of insulin (promotes insulin activity)
    • Promotes anabolic actibvity

    Organic forms are better
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Nutrition lecture 9 - mineral nutrition
Nutrition lecture 9 - mineral nutrition
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