focuses on how other people influence our psychology (thoughts, emotions, behavior)
Social cognition - focuses on how we think of others and ourselves
Social influence - focuses on how social situations effect us and how we are influenced
- Attitudes 3 basic components -
- cognitive set of beliefs/ verbal interview
- affective process of emotions, emotional response (measured physiologically)
- behavioral - direct behavioral observation
- Stereotypes - cognitive, beliefs, perception
- Prejudices - -/+ affective views/feelings
- Discrimination - behavioral
Social categorization - the mental process of categorizing people into groups on the basis of their shared characteristics.
Explicit cognition - deliberate, conscious mental processes involved in perceptions, judgements, decision and reasoning.
Implicit personality theory - A network of assumptions or beliefs about the relationships among various types of people, traits and behaviors.
Richard La-Piere Study
- 250 establishments only 1 refused service to inter-racial couple. Traveled 10,000 miles. Wrote them all the letters, pretending to be someone else. Asking permission for inter-racial couple to be served. 158 replied over 90% said they would not grant service for them.
- Guise of Cowardice
Bigotry v.s. Greed - shows that feeling and thoughts don't correlate w/ expressed behaviors & vice versa. Not always consistent
- Research suggest that stereotyping is inevitable & automatic. We
- must stereotype because it would be psychologically overwhelming and we
- don't have the cognitive ability to view people as individuals -
- cognitive explanation in/out groups in groups involved. out groups - not a member biased favor in in groupsmore attractive, characteristicsout groups - similar to one another, out group homogeneity effect acting/looking the same tendency viewing similarity
out-group homogeneity effect - the tendency to see members of out-groups as very similar to one another
in-group bias - the tendency to judge the behavior of in-group members favorably and out-group members unfavorably.
Power of Stereotyping
stereotyping cognitive shortcuts can lead to prejudices and discrimination
Princeton 40 African Americans/40 White students. Golfing to test natural ability, AA scored higher than W. > Idea that being aware of your stereotypes affects your performance behaviors.
- Harvard female Asian Americans
- 1st group asked ? emphasized about race
- Dual conflicting stereotypes/ women are bad at math, Asians are good at it.
Self fulfilling prophecy - expectations about someone will lead that person to confirmation of stereotype. Threat occurs when knowledge about a (-) stereotype leads to confirmation.
attribution are explanations that we assign to behavior. Inferring the causes of people's behavior, including one's own.
- occurs when we explain a person's behavior in terms of an internal trait the person posses
fundamental attribution error
: over estimate/ under estimate when describing the behavior of others, we tend to over estimate the rate of dis-positional causes & under estimate the role of situational causes. The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or understanding the effects of external situational factors; an attributional bias that is common in individualistic cultures.
blaming the victim
- the tendency to blame an innocent victim of misfortune for having somehow caused the problem or for not having taken steps to avoid or prevent it.
- the tendency to overestimate one's ability to have foreseen or predicted the out come of an event.
- the assumption that the world is fair and that therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
actor observer bias
- we tend to attribute our own behavior to situational causes when attributing the behavior of others to dispostional causes
Attributions by introductory psych students - questionnaire after test asking if its fair & why did well internal did poorly.
- Self-Serving Bias - we tend to attribute our success to dispostional causes and attributes our failure to situational causes.
- People are motivated to not think of negative biases towards self. The tendency to attribute successful outcomes of one's own behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external, situational causes.
- Unrealistic Optimism - studies that give list of % what would happen. Largely American & Canadian
- Japanese Self-Efacing Bias - people tend to attribute their success to situational causes and attributes their failures to dispostional causes
Groups create roles for the members, which is a shared expectation of how someone ought to behave
Power of Roles: Standford Prison Study
implications of psychology/ethical breeches
Zombardo, prison system have exemplified roles. Demonstrating the power of roles.
1973 simulated prison w/ college students as prisoners and guards. Assigned people roles by a flip of a coin. Guards enforced rules 1/3 of guards became cruel quasi sexually abusive and insulting to prisoners.
The line between roles & reality. Not worth ethical compromises.
- The Power of the Situation/Social Context of Power
- Conformity change in beliefs & behavior in response to group pressure.
Solemen psych studies demonstrated college students conform w/ group w/ incorrect lines.
normative social influence - behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval
informative social influence - behavior that is motivated by the desire to be correct
- Confederate - participate in on the study several traits simultaneously give incorrect.
- 37% of trials participates went w/ incorrection
- 75% conformed
Cognitive dissonance - unpleasant state of psychological tension or arousal that occurs when two thoughts or perceptions are inconsistent; typically results from the awareness that attitudes and behavior are in conflict.
authority figure specifically tells you to do something.
1963 male participates 20-50 from New Haven punishment on learning. Learner & teacher memorize list of words or shock for every wrong answer.
- only 5 out of 45 actually stopped
- 45% decreased
- 65% almost went all the way
4 main criteria in considering a presentable disorder
- deviation from statistical norms
- deviation from social norms
- personal distress
5 main perspective in studying psychological disorder
- biological approach
- psychoanalytic approach
- behavioral approach
- social cognition
- psychoanalytic network
- Anxiety Disorder
- generalized anxiety disorder - characterized by continuous long lasting uneasiness and tension across the board.
panic disorder - fear of being in a situation where it would be difficult to escape
agoraphobia - fear of being in a situation where it would be difficult to escape
phobic disorder - excessive fear of something particular person is knowledge
obsessive compulsive disorder - disabling disorder. obsessive thoughts compulsive hand washing etc.
post traumatic stress -anxiety irritability
- mood disorders
- depression - common cold of psychological disorders, frequently diagnosed, people often want it to be eliminated. 4 main symptoms: emotional cognitive physical and motivational
- depressed people do not fall prey to false realism. Depressed realism tends to be accurate in % study. Cycle of depression/Downward spiral of depression (see notes)
- bipolar disorder - exaggerated joy/energy manic episodes characterized by grand self-esteem exaggerated depressive episodes
- similar to a roller coaster, emotional state as out of control jerked around w/ no control.
Prozac - falsely elevates mood which creates more pleasant actions. Breaks from circle of depression.
- Schizophrenia spectrum disorder
- person loses contact w/ reality. Isn't diagnosed a lot. Very diverse as a group/manifestation characterized by disorganized thoughts and attention. Often use speech. Loosening of Associations amongst words and phrase - word salad - tossed together more focused on sound connections are there but the associations are completely loose.
Hallucination - strong mental image of things that aren't there. Usually, sound in their head. Existential doubt.
Delusion - false beliefs that a person firmly holds onto w/ objective evidence long lasting persistent
- emotional disturbances - wide ranging
- flat affect - no emotion extreme affect - dramatic pronounced mismatch affect - sad/happy in inappropriate situations.
withdraw from reality - unusual motor behavior/activity catatonic immobility
decreased ability to function socially
- Causes in Schizophrenia
- Diathesis Stress Model (biological predisposition)
People are born w/ a diathesis that makes them more likely to develop a mental disorder. People who are extremely stressed can cause predisposition to unfold. The idea w/ this is that you must have a nature & nurture in order to obtain schizophrenia
Does homelessness cause schizophrenia?
- Personality Disorder
- Antisocial personality disorder - 4 main characteristics - aggressiveness, lying/deception, lack of guilt, low tolerance for frustration.
- Clinical psychologist say people w/ disorder are more likely to be successful business people rather than serial killers.
- Borderline Personality Disorder
- Extreme instability w/ phases of depression, anger and anxiety arising frequently. Extreme instability in personal relationships and self-concept.
- Explained by Freudian view - weak ego strength, steams from childhood trauma.
Gender roles that associate w/ disorders & encourage these characteristics. Social constructivism.
Classic Psycho-Analytic Therapy
Freud idea that personality and behavior reflect your ego to balance your id and super ego.
Be aware and understand the unconscious conflicts & work through their effects.
Freud saw patients that suffered from hysteria - such as paralysis, blindness, deafness etc. from psychological issues. Now known as convergence disorder and is very rare.
Freud used hypnotism, but realized that he just needed to relax the patients and have them report their memories.
Talking Cure - a person can be cured by talking by allow exploration of conflicts amongst wishes and fantasies. People would regain themselves by gaining insight can psychological cure people.
Free Association - aspect of talking cure that involves the person to freely report anything that comes to mind no matter how trivial to unlock subconscious.
Unconscious defense mechanism. Resistance (mind avoided)
Goal is to offer interpretations through symbolism.
One modern era issue is that it takes years to adhere to this practice. Most successful - highly motivated, verbal and who can afford it.
Psycho dynamic Therapy
Only relevant to an issue. Focuses on insight, work through repeated conflicts, unconscious conflicts. Doesn't take years to reach goal and is more direct to the issue.
- - essentially takes behavior theory from learning theory to try and
- encourage appropriate behavior and eliminate undesirable behavior.
Behavioral therapist is trying to see your problems as a learned behavior. Individuals were seen as clients
to object the concept as a medical condition and approach themselves as equal.
Based on operate a classical conditioning.
- technique that is specifically designed to treat anxiety disorders.
Does so by gradually exposing client to increasingly anxiety versions of provoking stimulus during relaxation.
Systematic Relaxation Training
- Bio feed back. Person develops fear hierarchy. In vitro treatment - person interfacing fear hierarchy.
- systematically using operate conditioning.
Self-reinforcement, self-constraint, self-punishment, control stimulus condition
Uses behavior therapy but has an emphasis on cognition.
Developed by Aaron T. Back that focuses on changing the client's unrealistic and maladaptive beliefs.
Source of problems - unrealistic, distorted perceptions and interpretations of events due to cognitive biases.
Directive collaboration: teach client to monitor automatic thoughts; test accuracy of conclusions: correct distorted thinking and perception
Goals: accurate and realistic perception of self, others and external events.
Attempt to stress idea that humans have tremendous ability for growth and self-actualization.
- Rogarian Therapy
- client centered therapy - a type of psychotherapy developed by humanistic psychologist Carol Rogers in which the therapist is nondirective and reflective and the client directs the focus of each therapy session also called person centered therapy.
Nondirective therapist who displays unconditional positive regard, genuineness and empathic understanding
to develop self-awareness self-acceptance and self-determination
altruism - helping another person w/ no expectation of personal reward or benefit
prosocial behavior - any behavior that helps another, whether the underlying motive is self-serving or selfless
The tendency to expend less effort on the task when it's a group effort.
The tendency for the presence of other people to enhance individual performance.
The reduction of self-awareness and inhibitions that can occur when a person is a part of a group whose member's feel anonymous.
The pragmatic and integrated use of techniques from different psychotherapies
Anti psychotic Medications
Drugs that alter mental functions, alleviate psychological symptoms and are used to treat psychological or mental disorders.
Prescription drugs that are used to reduce psychotic symptoms; frequently used in treatment of schizophrenia also called neuroleptics.
Anti anxiety medications
- Lithium - treat bipolar disorder
- Benzodiazepines -
- Buspirone - buspar