Psych CH 5

  1. Erickson's Stages of Early Psychosocial Development
    • Infancy - basic trust vs. mistrust
    • 1-3 yrs - autonomy vs. shame and doubt
    • 3-5 yrs - initiative vs. guilt
  2. Basic trust vs. mistrust
    with proper balance of trust and mistrust, an infant can acquire hope
  3. Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
    A blend of autonomy, shame, and doubt gives rise to will, the knowledge that, within limits, they can act on their world intentionally.
  4. Initiative versus Guilt
    Purpose is achieved with a balance between individual initiative and a willingness to cooperate with others.
  5. Evolutionary psychology
    Many human behaviors represent successful adaptation to the environment.
  6. Attachment
    children who form an enduring socioemotional relationship are more likely to survive
  7. Bowlby's 4 phases of Attachment
    • Preattachment
    • Attachment in the making
    • True Attachment
    • Reciprocal relationships
  8. Preattachment
    • Birth to 6-8 weeks
    • infants learn to recognize mother by smell and sound
    • baby's behaviors provoke evolutionary behaviors from parents to foster growing attachment
  9. Attachment in the making
    • 6-8 weeks - 6-8 months
    • babies behave differently with people they know vs. people they don't know
    • more easily consoled and laugh more with primary care giver
  10. True Attachment
    • 6-8 months - 18 months
    • by 7 or 8 months babies have normally singled out a favorite care giver
    • infant has a mental reperesentation of the mother, an understanding she will be there to meet the baby's needs
  11. Reciprocal relationships
    • 18 months+
    • infants growing language and cognitive skills makes it easier for them to actually take part in their relationship
    • cope with separation more effectively
  12. Father-Infant Relationships
    • Fathers spend far less time in caregiving tasks and play differently than mothers
    • Fathers are preferred for play, mothers for comfort.
  13. Forms of attachment
    • Secure Attachment
    • Avoidant Attachment
    • Resistant Attachment
    • Disorganized (disoriented) Attachment
  14. Strange Situation
    • Experiment by Mary Ainsworth studying infants attachment to their mothers.
    • Observes separation and reunion with mothers.
  15. Secure Attachment
    • "I missed you terribly, I'm delighted to see you, but now that all is well, I'll get back to what I'm doing."
    • -Infant

    60-65% of American babies
  16. Avoidant Attachment
    • "You left me again. I always have to take care of myself!"
    • -Infant

    • One of 3 insecure attachments.
    • 20% of American babies
  17. Resistant Attachment
    • "Why do you do this? I need you desparately and yet you just leave me without warning. I get so angry when you're like this."
    • -Infant

    • Form of insecure attachment.
    • 10-15% of American babies
  18. Disorganized (disoriented) Attachment
    • "What's happening? I want you to be here, but you left and now you're back. I don't get what's going on!"
    • -Infant

    • Form of insecure attachment.
    • 5-10% of American babies
  19. Attachment Q-Set
    Oberves mother-child interaction in the home and rates attachment based on behaviors
  20. Other notes on Attachment
    • Babies with secure attachment are more likely to report being close with parents throughout childhood and adolescense.
    • Babies with insecure attachments are not.
    • Stressful life events can also trigger insecure attachments as well.
  21. Hallmarks of secure attachment
    • quickly responding to cries
    • responding appropriately
    • responding predictably
  22. Internal Working Model
    set of expectations about parents' general availability and resposiveness and in times of stress
  23. Ellipse study
    • insecurely attached babies looked longer at mother who returned
    • securely attached babies looked longer at mother who didn't
  24. Research studies about attachment:
    - Longitudinal study about infants showed what?
    - Kibbutz study in Israel showed what about secure attachment?
    - Study in the Netherlands showed that secure attachments were best formed when the mother had what?
    - Babies in Romania were more likely to have secure attachments when in the orphanages?
    • Infants at 12 months were more likely to have a secure attachment when parents responded predictably and responsibly at 3 months.
    • Infants who had no one to console them when they were upset in the middle of the night were less likely to develop secure attachments.
    • 3 months of training of infants cues and needs.
    • When the caregiver was emotionally involved with the child.
  25. When care givers respond intermittenly or after a while, what happens?
    The baby has trouble fostering trust and confidence so it has trouble developing a secure attachment.
  26. How does temperament effect attachment?

    pg 178
    Infants with difficult temperament are less likely to development a secure attachment, especially when they have a traditional, rigid mother rather than one who is flexible and accepting.
  27. Training

    pg 178
    Brief training can help mothers to respond more effectively.
  28. Gender differences in play

    pg 189
    • Given the opportunity, children will pick play partners of the same sex
    • Children often resist parents' urges to play with the opposite sex
    • Children prefer the same sex even when playing neutral activities like tag
  29. Why would children rather play with the same sex?

    pg 189
    • 1. Boys prefer rougher play while girls prefer a less competive style
    • 2. Girls interactions are enabling, while boys are constricting.
  30. Enabling actions

    pg 189
    actions and remarks support others
  31. Constricting actions

    pg 189
    actions are competitve where one person tries to come out as the winner by threatening or exagerating
  32. Gender stereotypes

    pg 194
    beliefs and images about males and females that may or may not be true
  33. social role

    pg 194
    set of cultural guidelines as to how a person should behave
  34. gender neutral world

    pg 194
    ends at about 18 months, when children look longer at pictures of toys relating to their gender
  35. gender world by 4

    pg 194
    • children translate gender into behaviors:
    • - boys play football; girls play hopscotch
    • - girls bake cookies; boys take out the trash
    • - boys are more aggressive physically; girls are verbally
  36. Actual differences between girls and boys

    pg. 195
    • Men are larger and stronger and are more active from birth
    • women have a lower mortality rate and are less susceptible to stress and disease
  37. Intellectual and psychosocial differences in men and women

    pg 195
    • Verbal ability
    • Mathematics
    • Spatial ability
    • Social influence
    • Aggression
    • Emotional sensitivity
  38. Social roles for men and women

    pg 195
    • Men:
    • more strenuous
    • more cooperation
    • often require travel

    • Women:
    • less demanding
    • more solitary
    • takes place closer to home
  39. Verbal ability

    pg 195
    girls have larger vocabularies and are able to read, write and spell better than boys and are less likely to stutter
  40. Mathematics

    pg 195
    men score higher on tests but women often get higher grades in math courses
  41. Spatial ability

    pg 195
    males typically respond faster and more accurately than women, and these differences are observed in infancy
  42. Social influence

    pg 195
    • girls are more likely to take direction from adults and are more readily influenced by groups
    • this may be because girls value group harmony more than boys
  43. Aggression

    pg 195
    • males have been observed by all cultures as more aggressive
    • girls resort to relational aggression
  44. Relational aggression

    pg 196
    intentionally trying to hurt others relationships by calling names, spreading rumors, or ignoring
  45. Emotional Sensitivity

    pg 196
    girls are better at expressing and interpreting emotions than boys
  46. Gender typing

    pg 197
    • children learn their gender type by simply watching
    • Bandura and Mischel perfected this theory
  47. How parents treat them

    pg 197
    parents normally treat son and daughters the same, however behaviors are treated differently
  48. Fathers and gender

    pg 198
    • fathers are more likely to treat sons and daughters differently by punishing sons more but accepting dependence in daughters
    • mothers respond based on individual needs
  49. Gender identity

    pg 199
    sense of oneself as male or female
Card Set
Psych CH 5
Human Development Ch 5