The upper extremity's bony attachment to the axial skeleton.
What is the upper extremity's bony attachment to the axial skeleton?
Which joint is involved in "joint separation"?
Which structures provide support for the AC joint?
Attachments of the deltoid (both proximal and distal to the joint)
What are the six movements of the scapula? At what Where does it attach to the thorax?
Attached at scapulothoracic joint
Protraction and retraction occur in what plane?
Where does the serratus anterior insert?
The scapula's vertebral border (goes under the scapula to push the scapula forward so as to not induce winging of the scapula).
T/F The supraspinatus is considered a rotator cuff muscle.
T/F The supraspinatus aids in the rotation of the humerus.
FALSE - because it is in the same plane as humeral abduction and not anterior or posterior, it only pulls in the same plan and does not pull the humerus forward or backward for rotation.
What is a closed-chain movement?
Involves limiting the movement at the distal part of a moving chain through stabilization (Ex. walking with a walker or transferring uses closed-chain scapular depression)
Which muscles are responsible for scapular elevation?
Levator scapula and upper trapezius
What is the primary cause of glenohumeral subluxation?
weakness or loss of supraspinatus muscle
Forward reach of the arm requires what scapula motion?
A patient is unable to push themselves up off the mat for wheelchair transfers. What key movement is required for this task?
Scapular depression - closed-chain
What is a closed-chain exercise?
Promotes distal fixation and proximal mobility.
T/F A closed-chain exercise promotes proximal fixation and distal mobility.
FALSE - promotes limitation of distal portion and movement of proximal portion.
Which muscle causes scapular weakening?
What scapular muscles promote GH extension?
Middle traps and rhomboids
What is scapulohumeral rhythm?
Scapular stabilization, balance between upward and downward forces affecting the humerus, continued GH abduction, and upward scapular rotation combine so an individual can raise their hand above their head.
What are the four muscles of the rotator cuff?
What is the purpose of the rotator cuff muscles?
Circular cuff securing the humeral head close to the glenoid fossa. The rotator cuff plays a critical role in stabilizing the GH joint when the hand holds objects that produce a downward force on the upper extremity.
Which is the main muscle that prevents subluxation?
What muscle is the agonist for scapula protraction and tilting?
How much GH abduction is possible with only contracting the supraspinatus?
30 degree - the rest of the the humeral abduction is done by the middle deltoid.
What is the function of the supraspinatus?
Which muscles are responsible for shoulder flexion?
Coracobrachialis, anterior deltoid, pectoralis major (clavicular head)
What is the best position for MMT shoulder extension grade 2?
What is the best position for MMT internal rotation grade 3?
What is the best position for MMT rhomboids grade 2 (isolated)?
To measure AROM for GH horizontal adduction the axis is aligned with what?
Superior aspect of the acromion process
What is the movement of the clavicular fibers of the pectoralis major in isolation?
Shoulder flexion in diagonal as in reaching to opposite shoulder
What is the site and motion of palpation for the infraspinatus?
Inferior to the spine of the scapula, GH external rotation