Final Vocab

  1. Bodily self
    That sense of self based on one's physical senses and bodily reaction.
  2. Cardinal traits
    Traits that are pervasive, outstanding, and dominating. Only a few individuals have cardinal traits.
  3. Common traits
    Generalized dispositions or shared traits, such as the capacity for gregariousness or aggressiveness.
  4. Central traits
    Those five or ten traits that best describe an individual's personality. Such attributes are used to describe another person or to write a letter of recommendation.
  5. Dynamic organization
    The type of organization that characterizes personality, which Allport viewed as a organized whole that is constantly changing.
  6. Functional autonomy
    A process by which a behavior that was once set in motion by a basic motive comes to operate even when the original motive on which it was based is no longer present.
  7. Heuristic realism
    the useful working assumption that traits really exist even though the theorist realizes that this may not literally be true.
  8. Idiographic
    An approach in psychology that is concerned with identifying the unique combination of traits and other characteristics that best accounts for the personality of specific individuals. It consists of in-depth analyses of individuals, usually for clinical or evaluative purposes.
  9. Mature or healthy personality
    In Allport's view, a person who focuses on long-term goals over momentary needs or goals. Such a person has a sense of self-extension, self-objectification, and a unifying philosophy of life.
  10. Nomothetic
    An approach to psychology that seeks to establish general laws of human functioning, that is, to understand the general variables and the behavior of people in general or groups of people. Most psychological research in nomothetic.
  11. Perseverative functional autonomy
    A behavior that becomes perseverative or self-repeating because it develops new motivational roots in some biological or neurological process. For example, a person who originally smokes to get the approval of peers may continue because of the development of an addiction to nicotine.
  12. Personal disposition
    Unique trait of an individual, a trait not shared with others.
  13. Personalistic psychology
    An approach to psychology that looks at every psychological process in terms of its occurrence within specific individuals. For example, instead of examining cognition or perception in general, the personalistic psychologist would focus on Jill's cognition and cognitive process of Jack's perceptual filed.
  14. Personality
    The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his or her characteristic behavior and thought.
  15. Personality trait
    A continuing disposition to respond to one's environment in a meaningfully consistent way. Personality traits consist of neuropyschic structures that render stimuli functionally equivalent and lead to equivalent forms of adaptive and expressive behaviors.
  16. Propriate functional autonomy
    A behavior that continues because it develops new motivational roots that express the individual's propriate strivings or most cherished self-wishes or desired goals. A person who originally plays the violin because of parental pressure may continue as an adult because of a deep love of music.
  17. Propriate striving
    Striving for the attainment of personally meaningful goals.
  18. Proprium
    Allport's term for the self; it consists of the bodilynself, self-identity, self-esteem, extended-self, self-image, self-as-rational-coper, self-as-proprietor, and self-as-knower.
  19. Psychophysical systems
    The physical and chemical structures and processes of the body's glands and nervous system, as well as associated psychological processes.
  20. Secondary traits
    Characteristics that are peripheral to the individual's personality, such as specific tastes in clothing, preferences for certain foods, or different musical affinities.
  21. Self-as-knower
    The last aspect of the proprium that surpasses, transcends, and unifies the other seven parts of the self through its awareness of the parts of the proprium. It is that sense of self that is aware of being and existing.
  22. Self-as-rational-coper
    That aspect of self that solves problems rationally and efficiently; knowledge that one is able to initiate strategies to attain present and future goals.
  23. Self-esteem
    Feelings about one's worthiness i the eyes of others and in one's own eyes Based on a sense of competence or lack thereof.
  24. Self-extension
    Extension of one's sense of self. A person may extend his or her sense of self to him or her possessions, family, home, fellow humans and country.
  25. Self-identity
    The aspect of the proprium that represents self-continuity. The regularity, the solidity, and the sameness of existence are apparent in self-identity.
  26. Self-image
    The reflected appraisals of other individuals that have become internalized; it also indicates one's own appraisal of ones virtues and weaknesses.
  27. Self-objectification
    The ability to perceive and measure realistically one's own abilities and shortcomings.
  28. Zeigarnik effect
    Named after Bluma Zeigarnik, the tendency of people to be motivated to complete and unfinished task. For Allport, the Zeigarnik effect was an example of a type of behavior that was functionally autonomous of its original motive.
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Final Vocab
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