Microbiology Chapter 11.txt

  1. Intoxication
    Illnesses in which bacterial toxins are ingested with food and water
  2. Infection
    Illnesses in which live bacterial pathogens are ingested and grow in the body
  3. Incubation period
    Is the time between consumption of contaminated material and appearance of symptoms
  4. What makes a person more or less prone to illness?
    • Demographics can make individuals more or less prone to food/waterborne illness
    • For example, age or sanitary conditions
  5. How does food or water become contaminated?
    • Slaughter - Meat can be infected during improper slaughter procedure
    • Water - Fruits and vegetables can be washed with contaminated water
    • Feces - Infected humans can contaminate food they handle through the fecal-oral route
    • Cross-contamination - between foods via knife, cutting board, etc.
    • Storage - Improperly stored foods can contain large numbers of pathogens because of rapid multiplication
  6. Intoxications
    • Botulism
    • Staphylococcal Food Poisoning
    • Clostridial Food Poisoning
  7. Botulism
    • Intoxication
    • Clostridium botulinum
    • No bad taste or smell in food
    • Destroy toxin by heating
    • 90C for 10 minutes - Heat labile
  8. Botulism types
    • A, B, E - commonly found in human food
    • C, D - Found in cattle
    • F - Found in fish
  9. Clostridium botulinum
    • Spore forming
    • Obligate anaerobe
    • G+ rod
    • When the spore enter anaerobic cans or jars the spores germinate to vegetative bacilli and produce a neurotoxic exotoxin
  10. What exotoxin does Clostridium botulinum produce?
  11. Botulism symptoms
    • 18-36 hours
    • Blurred vision
    • Slurred speech
    • Hard to chew and swallow
    • Respiratory failure in 1-2 days
  12. Infant botulism
    • Caused by consuming Clostridium botulinum spores found in food or soil
    • Most commonly caused by honey
    • The most common form of botulism in the US
    • Affects 3-24 month olds because they have not established the normal balance bowel microbes
    • Floppy baby syndrome
  13. Fodder disease
    Fermenting corn in silos (an anaerobic environment) can harbor Closdridium botulinum and cause this disease in cattle
  14. Limberneck disease
    • Poultry water gets contaminated with food and ferments creating an anaerobic environment for Clostridium botulinum to grow.
    • The chickens necks become paralyzed and their heads flop over.
  15. Botox
    The stain used in botox is a mild toxin form
  16. Staphylococcal Food Poisoning
    • Staphylococcus aureus
    • G+ aerobic staphylococcus
    • Makes exotoxin: enterotoxin
    • Heat stabile
    • No unusual taste or smell
    • Grows between 8C to 45C
    • Food is often contaminated by boils or abscesses on a handler�s skin, sneezing
    • Proper handling, refrigeration, and heating help decrease the risk of contamination
  17. Staphylococcus aureus
    • G+ aerobic staphylococcus
    • Can grow in colder temps 8C-45C
    • Found in noses and boils
    • Likes high protein foods like meat, fish and, dairy products
  18. Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Symptoms
    • Onset in 1-6 hours
    • Abdominal cramps
    • Vomiting and diarrhea (both!)
    • Goes away in 1 day
    • People have different tolerances to the enterotoxin
  19. Clostridial Food Poisoning
    • Intoxication
    • Enterotoxin
    • Clostridium perfringens
    • Likes protein-rich foods
  20. Clostridium perfringens
    G+ anaerobic spore forming bacillus
  21. Clostridium perfringens symptoms:
    • 8-24 hours
    • Cramping
    • Diarrhea
  22. Food born infections
    • Salmonellosis
    • Escherichia coli diarrheas
    • Listeriosis
  23. Salmonellosis
    • Usually caused by S. enterica serotype Enteritidis or Typhimurium
    • Gastroenteritis occurs 6-48 hours after a large infectious dose
    • Isolate bacteria from fecal matter
    • Found in poultry and eggs
    • Easter ducks and chicks
    • Turtles
  24. Salmonellosis Symptoms:
    • Onset in 1-3 days
    • Vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Cramps
    • Gastroenteritis
    • Lasts 7 or more days
  25. Salmonella Species
    • G- bacillus with flagella
    • 2500 unique serotypes
    • Serotypes is used instead of species because of the uncertain relationship existing between the organisms
    • Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and
    • Salmonella enterica Typhimurium
    • Most common cause of salmonellosis
  26. Serotypes
    Closely related groups of microorganisms or structures distinguished by their ability to bind to different antibodies
  27. Cholera
    • Vibrio cholera
    • Cholera can involve enormous fluid loss
    • V. cholerae are often consumed with raw oysters and water
    • The cells are susceptible to stomach acid
    • A large infectious dose is needed to colonize the intestines
  28. Cholera symptoms
    • Vibrio cholerae
    • Cholera toxin causes unrelenting loss of fluid and electrolytes through diarrhea (up to 1 L/hour)
    • In untreated, fluid loss thickens the blood, leading to shock and coma
    • Rice-water stools
  29. Vibrio cholerae
    • Motile aerobic G- curved bacillus
    • Enterotoxin (Cholera toxin)
  30. Cholera treatment
    Antibiotics and restoration of water and electrolyte balance are effective in treatment
  31. Cholera vaccine
    Vaccines using dead V. cholerae are available
  32. Electrolytes
    Any ions in cells, blood or other organic material
  33. Brucella suis
    G-. Brucella suis can transmit to human through pigs.
  34. Campylobacter jejuni
    • G-, curved and rod-shaped.
    • Transmitted to food by fecal/oral route.
    • Guillaine-Barre syndrome
  35. Bacillus cereus
    • G+, large, rod-shaped, endospore forming, facultative aerobic
    • Causes food poisoning after 2-6 hours
    • Enterotoxin
    • If in meat - diarrhea with a little vomiting
    • If in starchy food - substantial vomiting
  36. Staphlylococcus aureus
    • G+, facultatively anaerobic, sphere, gold colored
    • 2nd most reported type of food poisoning
    • Sometimes found in the nose
    • 1-6 hour iccubation
    • Protein rich foods
  37. Clostridium perfringens
    • G+, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming
    • Most common food poisoning
    • Protein rich foods
    • Spores survive cooking
  38. Listeria monocytogenes
    • G+, small, non-spore forming, facultatively anaerobic rod motile at room temp
    • Found in soil & intestines of many animals
    • Food contaminated with fecal mater
    • Psycotrophic - can grow in the cold
  39. Salmonella enterica Enteritidis
    • G-, flagellated, aerobic rod
    • Fecal/oral route
    • 6-48 hour incubation
  40. Escherichia coli
    G-, rod shaped
  41. Is a toxin involved in Typhoid fever
    Not established
  42. Is a toxin involved in Botulism
    Yes. The toxin produced is so powerful 1 pint could kill everyone
  43. Is a toxin involved in Cholera
    Enterotoxin, cholera toxin
  44. Is a toxin involved in Clostridial food poisoning
    Enterotoxin. The spores survive cooking and germinate to vegetative cells that produce the toxin
  45. Is a toxin involved in Listeriosis
    Not established
  46. Is a toxin involved in Shigellosis
    Exotoxin, Shiga toxin
  47. Causes traveler's diarrhea
    Escherichia coli
  48. Material used for treating botulism
  49. Region of the body where Campylocater colonize
    Large intestine
  50. Incubation period for staphylococcal food poisoning
    1-6 hours
  51. Species of Bacillus associated with food born disease
    Bacillus cereus
  52. Caused by child ingesting food containing endospores
    infant botulism
  53. The disease other than food poisoning that Chlostridium perfringens causes
    gas gangrene
  54. Typhoid is treated with what antibiotic?
    Ceftriaxon or chloramphenicol
  55. How many cases of salmonellosis per year?
    1.3 million
  56. What causes cholera?
    Vibrio cholerae
  57. Bloody diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli 0157:H7
    Hemorrhagic colitis
  58. Genus that is a major cause of infantile diarrhea
  59. What type of white blood cells are infected by Listeria?
  60. What is septicemia
    • An infection of the white blood cells.
    • Listeria infect the monocytes
    • Staphylococcus aureus can grow at what temps?
    • 8C - 45C
  61. The group of substances in food that encourage the growth of Clostridium perfringens
  62. What can type medium grows Staphylococcus aureus?
    Manitol salt agar
  63. The organic substance found in newer typhoid vaccines
    Capsular polysaccharides from Salamonella typhi
  64. Incubation period in salamonellosis
    6-48 hours
  65. What is another name for Shigellosis?
    Bacterial dysentery
  66. Is a toxin involved in Salmonellosis?
    Not established
  67. What disease focuses on the blood rich organs such as the spleen and lymph nodes?
  68. S. Typhi is transmitted by the five Fs:
    • Flies
    • Food
    • Fingers
    • Feces
    • Fomites
  69. What causes Rose spots?
    S. Typhi and they indicate blood hemorrhage
  70. How does S. Typhi survive the stomach?
    • It is acid resistant
    • It passes through the stomach to the small intestine
    • It causes ulcers, bleeding, and pain
  71. Salmonellosis
    • Can be contracted from a variety of foods
    • Gastroenteritis occurs 6-48 hours after a large infectious dose
  72. Salmonellosis is usually caused by
    S. enterica serotype Enteritidis or Typhimurium
  73. Salmonella spps.
    G- rod with flagella
  74. Salmonellosis Symptoms
    • 1-3 days incubation
    • Vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Cramps
    • Lasts 7 or more days
  75. Where do you find Salmonella bacteria?
    • Isolate bacteria from fecal matter
    • Found in poultry and eggs
    • Easter ducks and chicks
    • Turtles
  76. What food is Cholera frequently found in?
    • V. cholerae are often consumed with raw oysters
    • Water
  77. Cholera toxin causes
    Unrelenting loss of fluid and electrolytes through diarrhea (up to 1 L/hour)
  78. Cholera treatment
    Antibiotics and restoration of water and electrolyte balance are effective in treatment
  79. Cholera vaccine
    Vaccines using dead V. cholerae are available
  80. E. coli poisoning
    Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) penetrate the intestinal epithelium and produce a toxin that causes gastroenteritis a.k.a. traveler�s diarrhea
  81. Escherichia coli characteristics
    • G- bacillus
    • Enterotoxin or enteroinvasive
  82. Escherichia coli symptoms
    • Bloody diarrhea
    • Infantile and traveler�s
  83. E. coli treatment
    • Treatment:
    • Antibiotics
    • Fluid replacement
    • Hemorrhagic colitis
    • Severe, bloody diarrhea caused by E. coli
  84. Hemolytic uremic syndrome
    • Caused by E. coli
    • In older adults, young children, people with weakened immune systems may develop this complication involving the kidneys and leading to kidney failure
    • Seizers, coma, colonic perforation, liver disorder and heart muscle infection have been associated with HUS
  85. Campylobacteriosis
    • Results from consumption of contaminated poultry or dairy products
    • The most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the U.S.
  86. Campylobacter jejuni
    • Fecal-oral route, usually by poultry
    • Colonization of the intestine occurs during a 2-7 day incubation period
  87. Guillain-Barr� Syndrome
    A rare nervous system disease that may develop from Campylobacteriosis
  88. Listeriosis
    • Usually manifests itself as meningoencephalitis or septicemia
    • Caused by Listeria monocytogenes
    • Infection of the uterus can occur in women
  89. Listeriosis is usually transmitted by
    • Food contaminated with feces
    • Contaminated animal products like cold cuts and soft cheeses
    • Listeriosis usually affects pregnant women, the elderly, or immunocompromised
    • 25% mortality rate
  90. Meningoencephalitis is characterized by:
    • headaches
    • stiff neck
    • delirium
    • Coma
  91. Listeria monocytogenes
    Small G+ bacillus
  92. Listeria monocytogenes is found
    • In soil and barnyards
    • Cheeses
    • Ground meats
  93. Listeria moncytogenes is transmitted by
    • Contact with soil
    • Cheeses
    • Ground meats
  94. Listeriosis Treatment:
    Long-term tetracycline
  95. Shigellosis (Bacterial Dysentery)
    • Occurs where sanitary conditions are lacking
    • Caused by Shigella sonnei
    • S. dystenteriae causes epidemics in the developing world
    • An infectious dose requires fewer than 200 S. sonnei individuals
  96. Shigellosis contaminated foods commonly include
    • Eggs
    • Vegetables
    • Shellfish
    • Dairy
  97. What toxin is involved in Shigellosis
    Shiga toxin production in the intestinal epithelium triggers gastroenteritis
  98. What is infected by Shigella sonnei
    Infection of the large intestine can lead to fatal dysentery
  99. Is there a vaccine for Shigella sonnei
    No vaccine is available
  100. What bacteria is involved in ulcers
    Helicobacter pylori is involved in gastric ulcers
  101. How does one contract H. pylori
    It is unknown how H. pylori is transmitted but it likely involves contaminated food or water
  102. What toxin does H. pylori produce?
    • The bacteria produce urease, which in turn produces ammonia
    • Ammonia neutralizes acid in that area of the stomach, allowing the bacteria to survive
  103. How does H. pylori create an ulcer?
    • The ammonia, and an H. pylori cytotoxin destroy mucous-secreting cells
    • This creates a sore
  104. How is H. pylori detected
    A urea breath test is used to detect H. pylori presence
  105. Brucellosis
    • Brucella species cause brucellosis
    • Affects people who work with large ruminant animals
    • Infection can occur through eyes, abrasions, or consumption of contaminated dairy products
    • Brucellosis is also called undulant fever because of a specific fever pattern
  106. Vibrio species other than V. cholerae can cause illness
    • V. parahaemolyticus is a common problem where large amounts of seafood are consumed
    • V. vulnificus is transmitted by oysters and clams
    • It can cause a deadly systemic infection
  107. Bacillus cereus
    • Can cause diarrhea or vomiting
    • Infections usually occur from eating contaminated cooked grains
  108. Plesiomonas shigelloides
    • Causes intestinal illness
    • Infection is often from eating raw seafood
  109. Aeromonas hydrophila
    Cause both cholera-like and dysentery-like diarrheas
Card Set
Microbiology Chapter 11.txt
Microbiology Chapter 11