Nutrition lecture 7 - Water

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  1. Water must be supplied on a _____ basis as it is required?
    • Continuous
    • On the largest basis
  2. 6 major functions fo water?
    • Temp regulation
    • Transport of nutrients
    • Chemical reactions
    • Cushionng of organs
    • Lubrication
    • Transport of sight and sound
  3. What are 2 major sources of heat in the animal body?
    • Heat of fermentation
    • Heat of nutrient metabolism (oxidation and bond breaking)
  4. What do we see happen to the growth of an animal as it gets older in terms of water?
    Adds less and elss water and more and more fatto its growth, thus becoming less efficient
  5. Why do fat and water follow a negative inverse relaionship and what does this mean?
    • MOre fat less water in the animal
    • Because fat has 0 water in it and vise versa so if the proportion of the animal is more fat than it must be less water
  6. Does it take more energy to deposite a kg of fat or lean tissue
  7. Water content is highest in what animals and declines with what?
    • Newborns
    • Age
  8. What are the main sources of water?
    • drinking water
    • water contained in feeds
    • metabolic water
  9. Give an example of a high moisture feed?
  10. It stands to reason that an animal eating silage would neeed ______ water
  11. How is metabolic water formed?
    During metabolism by the oxidation of hydrogen contained foods
  12. In the combustin of glucose how much of its weight ends up as water?
  13. Describe an animal in a specific state that uses metabolic water to survivbe?
    Bears hibernating
  14. Describe the % of molecullar weight that ends up as water after the combustion of carb, protein, and fat?
    • 60
    • 40
    • 100
  15. Even though protein combustion produces 40% of its weight in water why is this misleading?
    BEcause it also produces many byproducts that need water to be excreted
  16. What is obligatory water loss?
    How much water must be lost to excrete waste products
  17. Do we store water in the body?
    NO not unless in a disease state
  18. 4 sources of water loss? What is a 5th one that is dependant on sex and time of life?
    • Kidneys
    • Skin
    • Lungs
    • Intestines

  19. What is the general rule of thumb of water consumption related to feed consumption?
    3x more water consumption than feed consumption regardless of species
  20. 7 factors affecting water requirements and consumption
    • Temperature
    • Relative humidity
    • Water content in diet
    • Temperature of water
    • amount and type of feed consumed
    • Physiological state
    • Health status
  21. Give 4 symptoms of water deprivation?
    • Reduced feed intake
    • Reduced heart rate
    • Increased boidy temp
    • increased respiration
  22. Roughly what amount of body water loss represents death?
  23. What are 6 factors affecting water quality
    • Dissolved mineral
    • Toxic elements
    • Pesticide residues
    • Pathogenic organisms
    • Industrial wastes
    • Fecal material
  24. What are the 3 main concerns of prairie water that we have affecting water quality?
    • Sulphate
    • total dissolved solids
    • nitrites
  25. Where do sulphates come from? What is their effect? What should you do to counteract it? What is the high point for animsal use?
    • Calcium sulphate rock (Gypsum)
    • Reduce availability of micor and macro minerals
    • Provide additional trace minerals such as copper
    • 2000
  26. What is the high point for animal use of total dissolved solids? iS this true for all animals?
    • 7000
    • No poultry are even lower
  27. Where do nitrates come from? What is their effect? What should you do to counteract? What is the high point in animal use?
    • Fertilizer or waste
    • reduced vitamin A and increased methemoglobin
    • prevent contamination nothiung you can do
    • 300
  28. Why are rumanents more susceptible to nitrate poisoning?
    Convert to nitrites in rumen
  29. When water is called hard what is this often related to?
    Calcium and magnesium salts
  30. Hard water is in what ppm range?
  31. what could the use of hard water do to your animals? How could you fix this?
    • Upset the calcium/phosphorus ratio causing leg problems
    • Use a phosphorus source without calcium to supplement in some phosphorous to help
  32. Why dont we want high fecal count in the water?
    Easy to spread disease
  33. What would lue green algae due to our water?
    Unpalatable and toxic...
  34. What are 3 ways we can improve water quality and what would each due?
    Sand filter - removes macro particles such as algae etc also can remove some trace minerals such as manganese

    Water softener - sodium replaces calcium and magnesium in the water

    Reverse osmosis - removes almost all particles including nitrates and sulphates usually too expensive for farms
  35. 5 features of good water quality
    • Clear/colourless
    • low total solids
    • No disease organisms or pesticides
    • No undesirable flavor or odor
    • no objectionable gases
  36. What happens with low levels of sodium? What about when they get over 10,000ppm? How can you fix this high level?
    • Increases intake
    • Decreases intake
    • Removing salt from diet
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Nutrition lecture 7 - Water
Nutrition lecture 7 - Water
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