- Flower heads yield pyrethrins whichinterfere with insect neurons.
- Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium
Pyrethrins are natural insecticides which are relatively non-toxic to people and degrade in the environment quickly.
Derris elliptica & others
Asia & South America
Rotenone is a potent fish and insect neurotoxin that degradesrapidly in the environment. It is still used today in modern fishmanagement.
Contains cardiac glycosidessimilar to those in Digitalis.
Monarch larvae consume milkweed and retain the cardiac glycosideswithin their bodies for protection against predators.
Mediterranean & Asia
Oleander contains >50 toxic compounds including oleandrosideand nerioside (cardiac glycosides similar to those found in Digitalis). Ingestion leads to heart failure.
Rhododendrons, Azaleas, & other Ericaceae
- Grayanotoxins cause cardiac arrhythmia.Ingestion of vegetation or contaminatedhoney results in poisoning.
- Kalmia latifolia (Mountain Laurel)
- Rhododendron macrophyllum
Stimulating beverages generally contain _______or _________. Both alkaloids have similar structures.
Both stimulate the CNS by interferingwith adenosine binding on neuron surfaces.They work rapidly, increasing heart rate,blood pressure, and breathing. They can be addictive – without caffeine,heavy users get headaches.
Coffea arabica & others
Coffee is cultivated in the coolhighlands of tropical and sub-tropical regions.
How is coffee made?
Seeds are roasted to convert starch into sugar and to drive caffeol, an essential oil to the surface.
________ coffee has had its caffeine removed.
- Various methods are used -
- Beans are commonly softened with steam
- and steeped in ethyl acetate (the organic
- solvent found in fingernail polish). The solvent (containing the caffeine) is then removed.
Spray-drying instant coffee
fall room. Sprayed by nozzles. Makes little droplets. Loses water as it falls. Gets smaller until water evaporates and leaves a powder.
freeze-drying instant coffee
frozen pull vacuum pump over frozen coffee to remove gas. Sublimation. Water molecules in the ice turn to gas w/o forming liquid.
Central & South America
- Cacao produces fruit directly on its trunk.
- Seeds contain theobromine.
- The pulp and seeds are allowed to ferment which aids in the formation of characteristic aromatic compounds.
How to make chocolate
Seeds are cleaned, roasted, cracked, and ground to make an
oily paste = chocolate liquor which is made into baking chocolate or chocolate candy.
Fat processed out of chocolate liquor yields cocoa butter, the
main ingredient in white chocolate, or cocoa powder used in
- Camellia sinensis
- Tea is the world’s most popular beverage. It contains caffeine and theophylline.
- Tea leaves are processed several ways to produce distinctive flavors:
- -black tea (fermented) -green tea (not fermented) -oolong tea (semi-fermented)
- Cola nitida
- Similar to cacao – seeds are fermented, dried, & pulverized, and the powder is mixed with water to make a caffeine-rich drink. Sometimes the seeds are chewed whole.
Alcoholic beverages contain ethyl alcohol (ethanol) produced using yeasts (single-celled fungi) of the genus Saccharomyces.
Under the appropriate conditions, yeasts metabolize glucose to pyruvate which is then converted to acetaldehyde and finally ethanol. CO2 gas is generated as waste.
Made by fermenting fruit juice (usually from grapes).
Although most wine is made from V. vinifera, North Americangrape species are important in providing Phylloxera resistance.
wine produced by fermenting the juice only; grape skins are screened out.
wine produced by fermenting juice with the red skins intact. Anthocyanin pigments
which leach from the skins give the
characteristic purple color.
fermentation for wine
Fermentation continues until the yeast runs out of sugar or the ethanol concentration approaches 18%. Ethanol is a toxic
metabolic waste product.
After fermentation, grape skins (red wine) are removed along with any particulate material. Wine is often aged before bottling.
CO2, a byproduct of ethanol production, is usually vented to the outside, but can be retained to make carbonated wine
Fortified wines contain added ethanol to boost alcohol content from 9-14% in table wines to 15-21% in fortified wines like sherry.
_______ is wine made by fermenting a honey-water solution.
Begins with a starchy carbohydrate source (usually barley) which is converted into simple sugars that yeast can metabolize.
- Germination causes barley seeds to convert starch the starch into maltose. The germinated grains are dried and often crushed to make malt powder.
- Hops are added for bitterness.
Temperate Europe, Asia, & North America
- Humulus lupulus
- Female vines produce cones (actually flowers set against leafy bracts) which exude a yellow resinous material that imparts taste.
Hops, malt, and often other ingredients (to augment the carbohydrates present) are mixed with water and fermented with yeast.
The brew is pasteurized (why?) & filtered, CO2 is added, and finally bottled.
Produced by distillation, a method of separating liquid components in a mixture based on differences in boiling points.
- Hard Liquor
- Ethanol boils at 78.5 oC. Gaseous ethanol (that is boiled off) is condensed by cooling. Redistillation can produce progressively higher alcohol concentrations.
- Hard liquor (with a typical alcohol content of 35-50%) includeswhiskey, gin, rum, vodka, and tequila. Brandy is distilled wine.
Obtained by steeping wormwood (Artemisia
absinthium) in ethanol and then distilling the
- The final product = bitter, green liqueur of aprox. 75% ethanol
- Water and sugar were often added to counteract the bitterness (due to absinthin) and to cause a (magic!) milky-yellow color change.
Absinthe contains ________, a hallucinogenic
compound that causes many neurological
disorders with repeated use.
In the US, absinthe has been outlawed.
- Thujone is soluble in ethanol, but comes out of solution whenwater is added, giving a cloudy appearance.
_______ are elongated cells with thick cell walls that lend strength.
- Plant fibers
- Fibers have diverse functions within plants.
- The most valuable fibers are almost pure cellulose
Three fiber groups
- 1. Surface fibers
- Seed/fruit fibers that aid in dispersal
- 2. Bast (soft) fibers
- Phloem associated fibers that lend mechanical
- 3. Hard (leaf) fibers
- Entire vascular bundles (veins) in leaves
The process begins with fiber extraction by one of three primary methods
- 1. Ginning
- Machine tears fibers from seeds
- 2. Retting
- Plant material is sunk in water or kept damp on
- the surface to allow microbes to degrade the soft
- tissues around fibers.
- 3. Decortication
- Machine rips away unwanted tissues
- Genus Gossypium (Family Malvaceae)
- surface fibers
- Gossypium hirsutum
- Gossypium barbadense
- Fibers are obtained by ginning. Remember that cotton fibers are hollow. Also note the natural twist that makes them suitable for spinning.
- Fibers extend from seed surfaces allowing them to become airborne under natural conditions.
Relating to cotton cloth
- Cloth is bathed in a NaOH solution to strengthen fibers and increase their affinity for dyes.
- Permanent Press
- Cotton fibers incorporated into cloth are cross-
- linked so that they have memory and revert to
- their original shape.
Central and South America
- Ceiba pentandra
- Surface fibers on seeds allow them to become airborne for dispersal.Fibers are too smooth to be spun, but because they are waterproof and trap large amounts of air, they have been used in life preservers.
Commercially important bast (soft) fibers
- Near East
- Tall and slender plantsare cut and bundled forretting on the soil surfaceor in ponds.
- Retting (microbial degradation of soft tissues around fibers)is moisture and temperature dependent.
- Corchorus species
- Fibers are obtained by retting in
- Fibers are not particularly strong
- and do not take dye – consequently,
- they are used to make course goods
- like burlap bags and twine.
Retted material is fed through rollers and scutched to removeremaining stem debris. It is then combed and spun into yarn to make linen.
Jute is inexpensive due to low labor costs in India and Bangladesh, the primary producers.
- bast fiber
After retting, the long hemp fibers are used to make rope and course cloth.
Commercially important hard fibers
- Agave sisalana
- Central America
- Basal leaves are removed and the fibers (entire vascular bundles)are extracted in the field (using portable decorticating machines) or factory. The fibers are used for mats, hammocks, etc.
- Musa textilis
- Decorticating machines extract the fiber from banana leaf petioles.Fibers are used to make clothing and various Manila products –rope and twine, tea bags, envelopes, and paper used to make money.
- Piña Fiber
- Ananas comosus
- South America
- Fine and soft piña fibers from pineapple leaves are used to maketraditional clothing in the Philippines.
Wood is categorized as:
- Softwood – wood from conifers (gymnosperms)
- Account for 35% of the world’s forest.
- Hardwood – wood from angiosperms (in the US, mostly deciduous trees)
- Account for 65% of the world’s forest.
Wood is composed of _______ tissues:
- Sapwood is functional xylem, heartwood is not. Heartwood contains high concentrations of tannins, resins, etc. to discourageinsects and pathogenic fungi.
- Wood can be burned directly. It is the primary fuel of 25% of the world’s population.
Wood density is related to the amount of carbohydrate present.
- Dense wood generates more heat energy when burned.
= pile of wood 8’ x 4’ x 4’
Obtained by burning wood slowly with restricted air flow. The heat drives off volatile compounds leaving almost pure carbon that burns at high temperature.
Thin sheets of wood peeled from large logs.
- Veneers of high quality are often glued over lower quality materials.
- Low quality veneers are used to make plywood.
- > 3 veneer sheets are glued together
Production requires wood pulp obtained mechanically (by grinding) or chemically (by dissolving wood chips in NaOH with sulfites & sulfates)
- Chemical treatment is favored because it eliminates lignin (a complex polymer) that discolors paper.
- Wood is reduced to xylem cellsin water. After bleaching, the slurry is deposited on a movingscreen for water removal.
- Paper can be made for many different plant fibers – including those from cotton, linen, and hemp.
- W. Mediterranean
- As trees increase in diameter,the epidermis is replaced byperiderm which is mostly cork.
- Cork is composed of cells thatare dead at maturity. The air-filled cells have walls impreg-nated with suberin, a water-proofing material.
- Most trees produce cork in limited quantities; the cork oak (Quercussuber) produces a particularly thick layer for protection against fire.
Poaceae (Grass Family)
- All produce woody stalks (culms) from underground rhizomes which usually mature within 6-12 weeks.
- Stalks are useful as construction materials and can be used tomake paper. Young shoots are edible.
types of bamboo
- running- spreads quickly over large areas
- slumping- large clump but doesn't spread as fast
______ plants are those used for aesthetic purposes.
- Line – vertical and horizontal branching patterns that frame areas.
- Form – three dimensional shape and structure.
Naming of ornamental plants is often difficult because the plants are created by people and may diverge significantly from wild ancestral species. Also note that many ornamental plants cannot reproduce sexually.
- If the plant is derived from a single parental species, the Latin name is given.
- If the plant is a hybrid (cross between two different species), a formula name is given.
- Rosa alba x R. nigra Rosa xwilsonii
For trade purposes, superior forms are given _____ names which sometimes appear within single quotation marks to indicate an artificial or patented form.
- Azalea ‘Pride of Mobile’
Ornamental plants are typically categorized as:
- Florist Crops
Plants grown for outdoor use in landscapes, gardens, etc.
- Nursery Crops
- Nursery plants include trees, shrubs, ground covers, bedding plants, and turf grasses.
_______ are prostrate, dense-growing plants that are not grasses. They usually require little maintenance
_____ for interior decorating are usually
selected for attractive foliage and the ability to
grow under marginal conditions
- low light levels
- low humidity
- sub-optimal temperatures
- small containers
Big business, worth tens of billions of dollars annually
- Florist Crops
Advantages to growing flowers in Central and South America:
1. Lower production costs (lower wages)
2. Fewer pesticide regulations
3. Uninterrupted (year-round) production
_______ are stretches of DNA (nucleotide base sequences) that provide the information needed to make a protein.
____________ uses knowledge about genetic processes to achieve some desired end
- Recombinant DNA Technology (Genetic Engineering)
- A gene from any source (viruses, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals) can be inserted into plant chromosomes.
- This allows plant cells to produce the same protein as was made by the organism from which the gene originally came.
A plant that acquires one or more new genes by human intervention is described as ______
In the popular media, transgenic organisms are often called ________
genetically modified organisms (GMOs).
Transgenic plants are often produced for agriculture to:
- improve taste or nutrition
- enhance growth rates
- confer drought and salt resistance
- confer cold tolerance
- confer disease and pest resistance
- confer herbicide resistance
Engineering for herbicide resistance
- Glyphosate (‘Roundup’) is a broad-spectrum herbicide that prevents synthesis of critical amino acids needed to make proteins. Glyphosate is also toxic to bacteriafor the same reason.
- Bacteria were screened for glyphosate-resistant mutants. The gene responsible (for resistance) was identified, isolated, and inserted into soybean plants. The resultant plants were glyphosate resistant,making herbicide application easier.
Engineering for insect resistance
- Bacillus thuringiensis (a bacterium) produces aprotein toxin (BT toxin) that kills many insects.The toxin destroys insect midgut epithelial cells,but is not toxic to people or other animals.
- The gene for the toxin has been put into many plants including corn, potato, cotton, and soybean.
Engineering edible vaccines
- Plants can be transformed with a Gene from a virus or other pathogen.
- The plant then expresses the gene,making the same protein as the pathogen. When a person eats planttissue (fruit), the protein moves into the body where it effects vaccination.
Edible vaccines have several advantages including:
- - Vaccine production & delivery are
- inexpensive once the first transgenic
- plant is made.
- - Edible vaccines are stable inside living cells
- and do not require refrigeration.
Engineering to improve nutritional characteristics
In the body, β-carotene is converted into vitamin A which is required for sight. Vitamin A can prevent blindness.
β-carotene production in rice was achieved by transferring
- 2 genes from Narcissus
- 1 gene from Erwinia (bacterium)
Concerns with GMOs:
- Human Health
- - introduction of new proteins may lead to
- adverse allergic reactions (low probability)
- Environmental Health
- - engineered crop plants may pass foreign
- genes on to closely related wild plants by
- cross-pollination (which might interfere with
- ecosystem dynamics)
- Agricultural Control
- - many fear the increasing control of agriculture
- by large corporations
- Rafflesia pricei, one day old Sabah, Borneo
- The genus Rafflesia contains the world’s largest single flowersall parasitic
- The liana, Tetrastigmaleucostaphylum (Vitaceae), is the main host of Rafflesia.