PSY 361 Final

  1. Define a constructionist view
    • Children construct their own understanding
    • Try to fit new info into what is known
    • Systematic changes in children's thinking occurs at appropriate ages
  2. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
    • Infancy (Birth-2): Sensorimotor
    • Thinking based on overtly physical acts

    • Early childhood (2-6): Preoperational
    • Overcoming limitations to logical thinkingThe inability to keep 2 aspects of problem in mind

    • Middle childhood (6-12): Concrete Operational
    • Use of symbols and internalized mental operations. Combine/separate/transform information logically

    • Adolescence (12-19): Formal Operational
    • Systematic thinking about logical relations in a problem; keen interest in abstract ideas
  3. Cognitive adaptation
    • Child Continually modifies schemata
    • Assimilation
    • Accommodation
  4. Schemata
    Organized unit of knowledge that child uses to understand situation
  5. Conservation
    • Understanding that altering an object's appearance does not change its basic attributes or properties
    • Get it age 5 or 6; Mastered at 8
  6. Object permanence/Mental Representation
    Object Permanence: entities external to child continue to exist independent of the child's seeing or interacting with them

    Mental Representation: Information stored mentally in some new form (verbal, pictorial, procedural)
  7. Egocentrism/egocentric speech
    • Egocentrism: tendency to view world of one's own perspective and to have difficulty seeing things from another's viewpoint
    • Believing one's own perspective is the only one possible
    • Spatial - physical p.o.v. (kids)
    • Communicative - mental and emotional p.o.v. (kids & adults)

    Egocentric Speech: Child instructs herself in solving problems and formulating plans
  8. Theory of Mind
    Understanding of the mind and how it works

    • Ability to think about others' mental states & form theories of their thought.
    • States: knowing, wanting, intending
    • Actions guided by beliefs & desires-How people come to know
  9. Challenges to Piaget’s theory (describe research examples)
    • Infant dishabituated when screen passed through box
    • Showed object permanence

    • Underestimated:
    • -timing and onset of cognitive abilities
    • -changes may not occur in orderly stages
    • -abilities of older children
    • -influence of culture and social experiences
    • -contribution of emotions to development
    • -cognitive development can be accelerated through training and active intervention
  10. Zone of proximal development
    social interaction allows scaffolding and guided participation in learning
  11. The role of language in Vygotsky’s Theory
    • Access to ideas and understandings of other people
    • Convey own ideas and thoughts to others 
    • Primary culture tool that mediates individual mental functioning
  12. The role of culture in Vygotsky’s Theory
    • Cognitive developmentis result of interactions and experiences
    • Mediators are critical psychological tools for learning success
    • Child learns to use many types; develops competency
  13. Neo-Piagetian Views: Information-processing accounts
    • Increased speed and capacity of memory processing
    • Memory span: 5-year-olds remember 4-digits, 10-year-olds remember 6, adults 7
    • Retrieval speed: 11-year-olds retrieve info about 6x faster than 5-year-olds

    Rich knowledge base --> easier recall and more powerful ability to reason 

    Acquisition of improved memory strategies (all are 2 sided because they must simultaneously think about a goal and the way to achieve it)
  14. Neo-Piagetian Views: Cognitive bridging strategies (attention, planning, metacognition)
    • Attention: Ability to sustain attention grows through middle childhood. Older children more able to select and execute attentional strategies
    • Planning: Older children scan the route and plan their moves before they begin a maze
    • Metacognition: Ability to think about one's thoughts --> assess how difficult a problem is likely to be and choose strategies to solve it
  15. Schooling & Childhood: Logical thinking
    Logical thinking = concrete operational

    • Does schooling help achieve logical thinking?
    • Results are mixed
    • The familiarity of the testing context may be influential
    • Conclusion: Inconclusive evidence
    • Probably practice and familiarity with problem solving situation --> development logical thinking
  16. Schooling & Childhood: Memory
    More schooling = better performance
  17. Proposed “consequences” of school and evidence (from studies) for or against the claims
    • Logical thinking: Not really
    • Memory: strategies yes, capacity no
    • Metacognitive skills: yes
  18. Metacognition (what is it and its relationship to school)
    • Justifying your thinking 
    • Schoolchildren do better in explaining their thinking
    • Can explain why things happen
  19. Family as a system
    • Group of people composed of interdependent members and SUBSYSTEMS 
    • Changes in behavior of one member of family affect functioning of other members
  20. Different subsystems of families
    • Parent-Child Subsystem
    • Coparenting Subsystem
    • Marital (Parent-Parent) Subsystem
    • Sibling (Singling-Sibling, Sibling-Parent) Subsystem
    • Family Unit Subsystem
  21. How and why are families in the U.S. changing?
    • How?
    • 1. More mothers working outside home
    • 2. Couples waiting to marry and have 1st child
    • 3. Infertile couples have new reproductive technologies
    • 4. # of lesbian/gay parents heads of households increased
    • 5. # of single-parent families increased
    • 6. Divorce rate higher

    • Why?
    • 1. Public concern for maternal employment decreasing; positive effect on children's perspective on men and women
    • 2. Improved employment + career opps for women; flexibility in gender roles; want to have completed education; birth control and changing social norms
    • 3.
  22. Changing and not changing societal views towards LGBT families and what the research says in regards to children raised in these families
    • Lesbian mothers: Children develop in a normal fashion and do not have any greater emotional or social problems
    • Gay fathers: Children are heterosexual adults

    Greater societal acceptance = beneficial for children
  23. What are some outcomes for children of divorced families?
    • Girls vs. Boys
    • Boys - externalizing
    • Girls - internalizing
    • Girls suffer before divorce, boys suffer after
    • Stronger for young boys and adolescent girls

    • Twice as likely to:
    • Have problems in school
    • Act out, becoming unruly and angry (boys) or demanding and attention-seeking (girls)
    • Be depressed and unhappy
    • Less self-esteem
    • Less socially responsible and competent
  24. The parent-child system
    • Mutual Shaping
    • Parents shape development
    • Directly by: following rules, routines, behaviors, presentation/manners
    • Indirectly by: Family sit downs to have a meal

    • Socialization Approaches
    • Environment Involvement (Warm and loving vs. cold and rejecting)
    • Level of Control (Permissive and undemanding vs. demanding and restrictive)
  25. Siblings & birth order
    • Fathers may become more involved with older child
    • Child's friends serve as buffer when new sibling arrives
  26. Parental socialization of children
    • Conscious and systematic, begins at birth
    • Social roles reinforced through modeling
    • Promotes child's social life and activities
  27. Authoritative
    • Demanding but reciprocal
    • Favor reasoning over physical punishment
    • Encourage independence

    • Child's Characteristics:
    • Self-Reliant
    • Self-Controlled
    • Display curiosity
    • Content
  28. Authoritarian
    • Demanding and controlling
    • Favor punitive methods over reasoning
    • Stress obedience over independence

    • Child's Characteristics:
    • Other-directed
    • Lack social competence
    • Lack curiosity
    • Withdrawn
  29. Permissive
    • Undemanding and little control exercised
    • Allow children to learn through experience as a result of indulgence
    • Neither independence nor obedience stressed

    • Child's Characteristics:
    • Dependent on others
    • Poor impulse control
    • Relative immaturity
  30. Uninvolved
    • Parents are indifferent to children
    • Attempt to minimize cost of children - give as little time/effort as possible
    • Focus on own needs before that of their children

    • Child's Characteristics:
    • Impulsive
    • Aggressive
    • Noncompliant
    • Moody
  31. Challenges to Parenting Style
    • Neighborhoods
    • Cultural meanings

    • Authoritarian minority parents in poor communities have better adjusted children
    • Chinese parents consistently labeled as Authoritarian...may carry different meaning
  32. Siblings and role in development
    Provide opportunities for children to learn positive and negative ways of interacting and may be more emotionally intense than exchanges with other family members and friends

    • In adolescence:
    • Become more alike
    • Share more interests
    • Less concerned with grabbing parents' attention
    • Sibling rivalry decreases
    • Sibling intimacy increases
  33. Examples of how the larger context interacts with different family subsystems (culture, SES, time, etc…)
  34. Characteristics of peer groups (definitions)
    • Peer groups are a social unit who:
    • Interact regularly
    • Sense of belonging
    • Formulate own norms, shared values & behaviors
    • Hierarchical organization

    Share gender, ethnicity, popularity

    Early peer cliques (4-8 same-sex members)

    Mid-adolescence - mixed-sex cliques
  35. Types of play
    • Solitary play
    • Play by themselves

    • Parallel play
    • 2 children play in same activity

    • Associative play
    • Children play with others but not necessarily with the same goals

    • Cooperative play
    • Play with those who have the same goals
  36. Research methods: sociometric technique

    Types of children as determined by sociometric technique
    Sociometric technique: measurement of peer acceptance; pick peers they like or dislike

    • 1. Popular children: Highest peer ratings; often w/ comprominsing and negotiating skill
    • 2. Rejected children: Actively disliked by peers; often in conflict, aggressove, or shy
    • 3. Neglected children: Ignored by pers; less sociable (not aggressive or shy); status often improves; often liked by teachrs w/ high achievement
    • 4. Controversial children: Both + and - nominations; even more aggressive than rejected, but compensate by joking
  37. Bullying/peer victimization
    • Bullies
    • Interact w/ victimized
    • Aggressive without provocation
    • Use bullying to control others
    • High social skills used antisocially

    • Victimized children
    • Not rejected by everyone, but actively harmed by a few
    • Lose tempers easily, difficulty managing attention
    • Act immature/dependent
  38. Friendship & importance of friends

    Stages of friendship (by grade)
    • Children without best friends, EVEN IF accepted by their classmates, are lonelier than children with best friends
    • Children with friends more socially competent, cooperative, self-confident, less lonely
    • Troubled children more likely to be friendless
    • Strong support for positive effects of friendships across school transitions

    • 1. Reward-cost stage (Grades 2-3)
    • 2. Normative stage (Grades 4-5)
    • 3. Empathetic stage (Grades 6-7)
  39. Adolescent friendships
    • Self descriptions: psychological intimacy 
    • More cooperative & less possessive
    • Emotional closeness & trust more common in girls vs. boys friendships
    • Having close friend promotes psychological health (unless based on shared antisocial behavior)
    • Intimacy higher in close friendships than in adolescent romantic relationships
  40. Cliques and Crowds
    • Peer groups provide social support & identity
    • Clique: 5-7 close friends
    • Crowd: large, loosely organized groups based on reputation
    • Parenting style predicts crowd memcbership
    • Structure and importance of peer groups changes during adolescence
  41. Gender-based beliefs
    Ideas and expectations about what is appropriate behavior for males and females
  42. Gender stereotypes
    • Beliefs that members of a culture hold about how females and males should behave
    • What behaviors are acceptable and appropriate for each sex
  43. Gender roles
    • Composites of the behaviors actually exhibited by a typical male or female in a given culture
    • The reflection of a gender stereotype in everyday life
  44. Gender identity
    The perception of oneself as either masculine or feminine
  45. Gender-role preference
    The desire to  possess certain gender-typed characteristics
  46. Sexual preferences
    The preference for same or opposite gender sexual partners
  47. Gender typing
    Culturally assigned roles
  48. Gender Differences
    • Girls are hardier
    • Physical, motor, and sensory development
    • Atypical development
    • Cognitive, social, and emotional development
    • Score better verbally, boys specially
    • Activity level and exploratory activity
    • Dependency, fear, and timidity
    • Anxiety and stress
    • Mythical differences: sociability, conformity, hostility, learning style, achievement, self-esteem
  49. Sex differences
    • Males: aggressive and competitive skills
    • Females: strategies for attracting and keeping mates who provide resources and protection for offspring; skills and interests that commit them to child rearing

    • Adolescents and adult gender-based differences less apparent under conditions of privacy compared to when people know that they are being observed
    • Likely that gender-linked responses affected by biology, evolution, and cultural conditioning (but difficult to tease apart)
  50. Social learning theory (Bandura)
    • Identification through observation, imitation, & reinforcement (or punishment)
    • Adults: provide models, reward sex-appropriate behavior, punish cross-sex behavior
    • Differential reinforcement: process by which girls  and boys are differently rewarded for engaging in gender-appropriate behavior
    • Parental encouragement is especially strong for masculine roles
  51. Kohlberg’s cognitive developmental theory & stages
    • Identity formation as conceptual development (classification)
    • Results from child's active structuring of his/her experience

    • Stages:
    • Basic sex-role identity: by 3 years old, children can label themselves as "boy" or "girl"
  52. Gender stability
    • Notion that gender does not change
    • Males remain male
    • Females remain female
  53. Gender constancy
    The awareness that superficial alteration in appearance or activity do not alter gender
  54. Gender schema theory
    Children develop schemas that help them organize and structure their experience related to gender differences and gender roles
  55. Extrafamilial influences on gender roles & identity
    • Books and Television (Media)
    • Males seen as aggressive and successful
    • Females warm and unsuccessful
    • More effective with younger children

    • Peers
    • Enforcers of gender-role standards/define them
    • Gender segregation marked for boys

    • Schools and Teachers
    • School system predominantly male
    • Teachers structure activities by gender and provide differential rewards and punishments to boys and girls
  56. Major points from Sexualization of girls presentation
    • Girls think that they need to be pretty (weigh less) to be successful
    • Early sexualization in children
  57. Short Answer: Discuss two findings discussed in lecture or in your text that challenge the idea that there is one ideal parenting style that can be applied universally.
    Studies have found that poor minority parents who used more authoritarian child-rearing practices had better adjusted children than those who relied on authoritative

    Chinese are known to use authoritarian styles but they have a different conception of that parenting style. US emphasizes an individualistic view of childhood socialization and development. Style associated with higher child self-esteem in Middle Eastern but not Angle children
  58. Short Answer: Some of the proposed consequences of schooling are: (1) an increase in logical thinking, (2) increase in memory, and (3) an increase in metacognitive skills. Based on the research presented in class and in the book, are all of these necessarily associated with schooling? For each of the three, explain why or why not?
    • Logical thinking: not really
    • Possibly associated with practice and familiarity with problem solving situation 

    • Memory: school strategies yes, capacity no
    • Better performance 

    • Metacognitive skills: yes
    • Children better in explaining their thinking
  59. Short Answer: Why is it important to have a friend in childhood? Give two reasons why friendship is important and frame your answers around the social benefits discussed in lecture and in your text.
    • Children with friends are more socially competent, cooperative, self-confident, and less lonely
    • Strong support for positive effects of friendships across school transitions
  60. Short Answer: Name three REAL gender differences discussed in your book. Based on lecture and the text discuss why you think we see these differences.
    • Atypical Development
    • Boys more likely to have genetic defects, physical disabilities, mental retardation, reading disabilities, speech defects, and school and emotional problems

    • Social and Emotional Development
    • Boys: physical aggression, variable in responses to parents
    • Girls: indirect aggression, listen to parents

    • Cognitive Development
    • Girls: display superior verbal abilities
    • Boys: greater visual-spatial ability
  61. Short Answer: Describe three of the family subsystems mentioned in lecture (and in your book). Describe how change or disruption in any one of the subsystems may influence any of the other subsystems.
    • Parent-child sub-system
    • Conscious and systematic, begins at birth
    • Social roles reinforced through modeling
    • Promotes child's social life and activities
    • Mutually shaping

    • Coparenting subsystem
    • 3 patterns:
    • 1. Cooperative, cohesive, and child centered
    • 2. Hostile
    • 3. Imbalanced involvement with children

    • Sibling subsystem
    • Sibling rivalry and ambivalence diminish with age
    • Sibling intimacy increases with age
  62. Short Answer: According to Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, development is inherently a social and cultural process. Using research discussed in this class, give three specific examples of how cultural values, beliefs, or practices shape development. (Draw only on lecture, text, or films in the course.)
    Oral narratives and story-telling important to cognitive development

    Prevent underestimating children's intellectual capabilities

    Children and their different techniques in solving math problems without formal schooling
  63. Short Answer: In class we have addressed cognitive development, emotional development, social development, and physical growth and maturation as separate topics, but in reality they are all co-occurring as the child grows up. Give an example about how a change in one can be related to a change in any of the others.
  64. Short Answer: Discuss two specific examples of resilience in development (where certain groups of children were labeled behind, delayed, at a disadvantage or not as good at something and were still able to develop appropriately for their community).
    A woman with no formal schooling uses her whole body (as we would our fingers) to count and solve mathematical equations

    Child vendors can solve commercial problems mentally to figure out how much change is needed for their customers
  65. Short Answer: List two theories of gender role development, and briefly describe the main arguments that these theories make.
    • Kohlberg's Developmental Theory of Gender Typing
    • Children use physical and behavioral clues to differentiate gender roles and to gender-type themselves early in life

    • Gender-Schema Theory
    • Children develop schemas that help them organize and structure their experience related to gender differences and gender roles
  66. Short Answer: What are some of the unique circumstances surrounding parents in LGBT families, and children raised by LGBT parents?
    Lesbian mothers: Children develop in a normal fashion and do not have any greater emotional or social problems

    Gay fathers: Children are heterosexual adultsGreater societal acceptance = beneficial for children
  67. Short Answer: List 3 ways that the introduction of TV (regardless of content) changed children’s social lives
    • Increase in traditional gender attitudes
    • Shaped children's toy requests
    • Change children's gender-role stereotypes
  68. Short Answer: What is the difference between stage and continuous theories of development? Give an example of a stage theory (including what is reported to happen at the different stages) and also explain the same phenomenon using a continuous theory.
  69. Short Answer: In middle childhood children achieve “conservation.” Part I: What is meant by conservation and how is it tested? Part II: What are two other possible explanations for these results other than a change in the nature of thinking?
    • Part I
    • Conservation is the understanding that some properties of an object remain the same even when its appearance is altered.
    • One test has 2 same glasses of water with the same amount of water. When 1 glass is poured into a taller, thinner glass, they are asked if the glasses contain the same amount of water.

    • Part II
    • Cultural variation/horizontal décalage
    • Simplification of tasks or more comprehensible
  70. Short Answer: Explain the criticisms of Piaget’s theory and cite evidence to support these criticisms. How does one reconcile the current findings with Piaget’s original position?
  71. Short Answer: Give an example of a study from either lecture or the book where infants were exposed to an impossible event. What were the results from the study and how did these findings refute part of a classic theory of cognitive development (be sure to name what part of the theory they refute).
    • Infant 3 1/2 months old dishabituated when screen appeared to pass through the place where box was located
    • Seemed to indicate reasoning about impossible event

    At 3 months old, show object permanence (Piaget's stage 2 = Preoperational Stage)
Card Set
PSY 361 Final
Exam 3