Latin American Studies Exam 2

  1. Santiago De Chile
    Capital of Chile consisting of a number of different cities,  founded in 1541
  2. salvador allende
    Chilean Doctor and politician. First Socialist to become president 1970
  3. General Augusto Pinochet
    Army General and dictator of Chile from 1973 until a democratically was elected president in 1990. Assumed power in a coup d'etat on sept 11 1973
  4. September 11, 1973
    Day Pinochet assumed power due to a Coup d'etat supported by the US CIA.
  5. March of the Empty Pots
    Under Pinochets regime, women marched in protest for the lack of food under his socialst presidency.
  6. Democratic Socialism
    Emphasizes democratic principles of a Marxist society.
  7. Villa Grimaldi
    Chilean Secret Police, accused of extreme interrogation and torture of political prisoners during the Pinochet Regime
  8. Plebiscite of 1988 (Chile)
    National referendum Oct 5, 1988 to determine whether defacto leader Pinochet should extend his rule for another eight years. "NO" won w/ 56% ending his 17 yr reign.
  9. Michele Bachelet
    Elected president of Chile recently and probably again
  10. Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner
    Current President of Argentina, two terms, husband president before her.
  11. Dilma Rousseauf
    President of Brazil
  12. Violeta Chamorro
    President of Nicaragua and restablishing positive relations w/ the US after 1989-1990.
  13. Theology of Liberation / Liberation Theory
    Don't have to wait to be liberated in heaven, humans can liberate themselves here on earth.
  14. Christian Base Communities
    An autonomous religious groups often associated w/ the Liberation Theology. Organized often illiterate peasants into self-reliant worshiping communities.
  15. Fray Bartolome de Las Casas
    16th Century Spanish Friar. Advocate of rights for the indigenous population of Latin America. Still well remembered to this day.
  16. Vatican II '62 - '65
    Addressed the relations between the Catholic Church and the Modern world.
  17. Gustavo Gutierrez (Columbia)
    Peruvian theologian and regarded as founder of the Liberation Theology.
  18. CELAM (Conference of Latin American Bishops)
    council of the Catholic bishops of Latin America created in 1955. Pushed the Second Vatican Council toward a more progressive stance.
  19. Leonardo Boff (Brazil)
    Brazilian theologian and write, known for his active support for the rights of the poor and excluded. One of the best supporters of the Liberation Theology.
  20. Sandinistas (Nicaragua)
    Members of the FSLN. named after Sandino who led the Nicaraguan resistance against the US occupation of Nicaragua in the '30s.
  21. Anastasio Somoza
    Somoza dictatorship family that led Nicaragua from '36 to '79 that was overthrown by an insurrection led by the FSLN.
  22. July 19, 1979 (Nicaragua)
    The Sandinista revolution to overthrow the Somoza family dynasty.
  23. Sandinista Revolution
    Overthrew the Somoza family dynasty in Nicaragua on July 19th, 1979. FSLN
  24. Ernesto Cardenal (Nicaragua)
    Nicaraguan Catholic Priest and Politician. Supporter of the Liberation Theology, and member of the Sandinistas.
  25. Daniel Ortega
    Nicaraguan Politician who has been president since 2007, and previously from '79 to '90. Leader in the FSLN.
  26. Umbanda vs. Candomble
    • Umbanda: Brazilian religion that blends african religions w/ catholicism along with indigenous lore and other religions.
    • Candomble: African originated religion practiced mainly in Brazil.
  27. Hay-Buneau Barilla Treaty
    signed on Nov. 1903 by the US and Panama that established the Panama Canal Zone and the construction.
  28. The Monroe Doctrine
    1823 - Stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere w/ states in the North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression.
  29. Big Stick Democracy
    Refers to Theodore Roosevelt's foreign policy: "Speak softly, and carry a big stick"
  30. Roosevelt Corollary
    addition to the Monroe Doctorine stating that the US will intervene in conflicts between European countries and the Latin American countries, so long as LA countries conduct themselves appropriately.
  31. The Good Neighbor Policy
    Policy of the US (Roosevelt) toward the countries of LA. Non intervention and non interference in the domestic affairs of LA. Reinforced the idea of US being a "Good neighbor" and engage in exchanges with LA.
  32. Omar Torrijos
    Comander of Panamanian and National Guard and dictator of Panama from 1968 to '81. Supported by the US b/c he opposed communism.
  33. Manuel Noriega
    Military Dictator of Panama from 1983 to '89. In the '89 invasion from the US he was removed from power, and flown to the US as a POW.
  34. "La Violencia" Columbia
    Ten-year (48-'58) period of civil war in Colombia between the conservative party and the liberal party.'48 murder of Gaitan initiated riots and killed about 5k people.
  35. FARC
    • People's Army - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia. 
    • Marxist terrorist organization involved in the continuing armed conflict since '64.  Say they represent the poor.
  36. Extradition Columbia
    Colombia refused to participate in extradition, thus providing a safe-haven for those wanted by the US.
  37. Pablo Escobar
    Drug Lord and elusive cocaine trafficker. Colombia refuse to extradite him on US charges.
  38. Sicarios
    To murder a prominent person by surprise attack.
  39. Plan Colombia
    Refers to US legislation aimed at curbing drug smuggling and combating supporting different activities in Colombia.
  40. Paramilitary groups
    Militarized force that has a function and organization similar to profession military but is not part of the states formal military. Prominent in Colombia
  41. Mexican Revolution
    1910 - led by Madero against Diaz and lasted nearly a decade. Resulted in the Mexican Constitution of 1917.
  42. Cuban Revolution
    1953-59: revolt by Fidel Castro and allies against the government of Batista.  Led to a revolutionary socialist state, and later reformed along communist lines.
  43. Nicaraguan Revolution
    Opposition to Somoza dictatorship in the 60s and 70's  led by FSLN to violenty oust the dictatorship in '79. Led to a following war between FSLN and the Contras.
  44. Ejido
    Area of communal land used for agriculture. Community members individually possess and farm a specific parcel.
  45. Lazaro Cardenas
    President of Mexico from 1934-40. Held great power even after his presidency. Very agains the Catholic church.
  46. Fidel Castro
    Cuban communist revolutionary and was leader from 1959-2008. Led the revolution as a socialist but then converted to Communism.
  47. Bay of Pigs
    Unsuccessful military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the CIA. Counter revolutionary military trained and funded by the US to overthrow Castro. 1961
  48. Missile Crisis
    14 day confrontation in Oct 1962 between the Soviet Union and Cuba against the US. Soviets placed missiles in Cuba in response to US placing missiles in Turkey.
  49. Alliance for Progress
    Initiated by Kennedy in '61 aimed to establish economic cooperation between the US and LA.
  50. National Guard in Nicaragua
    Militia created during the occupation by the US from 1909-'33 Notorious for human rights abuses and corruption under the regime of the Somoza family.
  51. Contras
    various rebel groups opposing the Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction. active from '79 through early '90s. Received financial and military support from the US.
  52. Violeta Chamorro
    Nicaraguan leader. Became president in 1990 after Ortega.
  53. Civil War in El Salvador
    1979-992 conflict between the military-led government of El Salvador and the National Liberation Front. Characterized by extreme violence.
  54. Oscar Romero
    Bishop of the Catholic Church in El Salvador. Assassinated March 1980. Aligned himself with progressive beliefs.
  55. Peace Accord 1992
    Peace to El Salvador in 1992 after more than a decade of Civil Ward. Negotiated by the representatives of the Salvadoran Government and the rebel group FMLN.
  56. Zapatistas
    Army of National Liberation. Revolutionary Leftist group based in Chiapas. Declared war against the Mexican state, made up mostly of rural indigenous people.
  57. Subcomandante Marcos
    Main Ideologist of the Zapatistas. Protests what he saw as the Mexican federal governments mistreatment of the nations indigenous people.
  58. Chiapas
    Zapatistas call home, region in Southwest Mexico.
Card Set
Latin American Studies Exam 2
Terms and Ideas listed on the Exam 2 Study Guide by Maria Bustos