Geog 112: Week 8

  1. Concept of re wilding
    • -Serengeti 
    • -concept of bringing back things like bison, wolves, bobcats, mountain lions to the great plains
    • -all of the things that Lewis and Clark would have found in there trips across the US
    • -bringing back animals that were extinct long before lewis and clark
  2. Why would you not want to bring animals back that are extinct?
    • -It will mess up the balance again
    • -you cant balance the ecosystem after an animal has died off
  3. Types of Biological corridors
    • -animals don't use them 
    • 1. rope bridges (for rodents)
    • 2. culverts (under roads and such)
    • 3. overpasses (over roads and such)
  4. Neaartic animals
    • 1. Reindeer
    • 2. Musk ox
    • 3. Lots of migratory birds
  5. Topography of Neartic
    • -mountains running along whole north and south 
    • -quite a few divisions that you are going to s
    • -seriously rugged mountains are important because they block off points of entry
    • -Bering strait (closest point of entry)
    • -Gulf of Mexico (point of entry)
    • -Niche area in the west
    • -more than half width of Ethiopian realm
    • -less than half the width of Paleartic realm
    • -doesn't have east to west orientation like paleartic
  6. Megafauna: Ethiopian realm vs Neartic Realm
    -A lot of mega fauna when talking about Ethiopian realm, Mega fauna did not do well in the NEARCTIC REALM at all
  7. Why we don't want to re wild?
    • 1. Animals went extinct for a reason
    • 2. Different predators now
    • 3. Ecology is different
    • 4. Megafauna need lots of space
    • -there is no space
    • 5. People don't like these animals
  8. In order for a rewilding project to work you would need to provide
    • 1. Lot of space
    • 2. Food for these animals
  9. Black footed ferrets and the prairie dogs
    • -Used as pets
    • -not in nature like they should be
  10. Black Bear
    • -smallest of north American bears
    • -our only purely American bear
    • -only endemic bear
  11. California Grizzly Bear
    • -Is on state flag
    • -shot it to extinction a few years ago
  12. Lynx
    • -walks on snow
    • -have fur on the bottom of their feet
  13. Sea otter
    • -had to be reintroduced 
    • -keystone species because they eat sea urchins and sea urchins eat kelp.
    • -No otters, sea urchins decimated the kelp and fish markets and marine life suffered
    • -since 1987 there has been movement trying to allow them to come back and they finally came back last year
  14. California River otter history
    • -were removed by albacore fisherman
    • -said sea otters are competing with us and by federal law the sea otters from baja california to southern california were shot and killed
  15. California Hotspot
    • -Mediterranean type of climate
    • -lots of threatened and endemic species
    • -all are quite small
    • Ex. Slander Salamander,
    • -California Condor
    • -tiger salamander
    • -yosemite toad
    • -island grey fox
    • -giant kangaroo rat
    • -nelsons antelope squirrel
    • -island night lizard 
    • -farming is a very big threat
  16. Emblematic, but gone
    • -Grizzly Bear 1952
    • -killed a lot of emblematic species in 1920s
  17. Two main Corridors they are trying to create
    • 1. A to A (Algonquin to Adirondack)
    • -Much looser of the two
    • -not as much connectivity near Canada and US border
    • 2. Y to Y (Yellowstone to Yukon)
    • -wolf has been able to survive
    • -Pluie was shot legally by farmer in 1992 and so was her mate and cubs
  18. Concept of corridors
    • -very European and Canadian
    • -you need to let animals do there whole home range safely
    • -rope bridges 
    • -overpasses 
    • -culverts
  19. Why Florida isn't a biodiversity hotspot?
    -because animals aren't supposed to be there
  20. Oriental realm: Where
    • -Indian and Pakistan Subcontinent,
    • -Malay Peninsula and Archipelago
    • -Indonesia to the Wallace Line
  21. Oriental realm: Climate
    • -very tropical area
    • -was once completely forested
  22. Oriental realm: Species
    • -shares 75% species with Paleartic
    • -shares 50% species with Neartic
    • -not as many unique species here as you might fins somewhere else
    • -Centrally located: things are shared so not much uniqueness
    • -Endemic species like Gibbons, Tree shrews, Colugo (all have adaptations for trees)
  23. Tree Shrews
    • -Disputed animals because some people say they are insectivores like other 
    • -some say they are prisimians or primates
    • -they aren't either so they have there own little mammal family
    • -exceptional hearing, eyesight and smell
    • -unlike any other shrew
  24. Colugo
    • -Sometimes called flying lemurs but they are not lemurs and they don't fly
    • -they glide very long distances like buzz light year
    • -they can go incredible distance by spreading out arms
    • -live very high up in trees and their adaptation has occurred as best mode for transportation 
    • -given up ability to climb for ability to fly
  25. Tarsiers
    • -once much larger, now smaller
    • -unique because they are the only primate species that is entirely carnivorous, only eat insects
    • -only species of primates that are at risk of extinction
  26. Gibbons
    • -very good swingers and locomotion
    • -wrists are composed of a ball and socket joining a lot like our hips
    • -reduces stress on shoulder joints, allows them to swing at amazing speeds
    • -medium body size, they do have reduced thumbs
    • -have very large brains in relation to their body size 
    • -broad chest, large toes, never had a tail
  27. Oriental realm: Old World Monkeys
    • -hundreds of primates in this realm
    • -apes, prisimians, etc
    • -There are 3 types of primisians in this realm 
    • -have large eyes because they use them for night vision
    • -have giant eyes bigger than stomachs sometimes
    • -big ears that can pick up sounds like insects crawling 
    • -can fold ears towards head so they can't get grabbed
    • -have suction cups on the ends of their fingers like geckos, allows them to cling to slippery branches
  28. Asian monkeys have several things in common
    • -have large stomachs with many pouches filled with bacteria that can break up leaves and allows them to get necessary energy out of it(only in monkeys that aren't fully carnivorous)
    • -have long tails for balance but nothing more
    • -missing thumbs
    • -hands are adapted to hold very tight grisps
  29. Orangutans
    • -1 found in Borneo, 1 found in Sumatra
    • -they are a distinct species 
    • -some older orangutans, hybrids in zoo 
    • -fur differences between Borneo and Sumatran Orangutans (Sumatran have longer hair)
    • -Sumatra is smaller
  30. Leaf Monkeys
    - a lot of lead monkeys in Asia
  31. Oriental realm: Similarities with Ethiopian Realm
    • -Mousedeer
    • -Asian Elephant:communicate with each other a lot on a subsonic kind of level, with what seemed like stomach rumblings 
    • -Yellow throated Marten
  32. Oriental Realm: Similarities with Paleartic and Neartic Realm
    • -Civets
    • -smooth otter:find along coastal regions, eat fish, shell fish, crustaceans
  33. Civet coffee
    refers to the beans of coffee berries once they have been eaten and excreted by the Asian palm civets
  34. Oriental Realm: Bats
    • -Flying fox
    • -any tiny small bats
    • -horsehoe bats, nectar bats, fruit bats
  35. Oriental Realm: Birds
    • -lots of birds
    • -birds have adapted to so many different niches its really quite remarkable
  36. Indo-Burma Hot Spot
    • -hotspot because it has a large number of species and its an area of conflict  
    • -conflict destroyed the environment 
    • -lots of new of species 
    • -Soala
    • -Grey-shanked Duoc
    • -Large antlered munt jac
    • -Annamite striped Rabit 
    • -over 400 mammal species alone in this hotspot 
    • -70 species in 7 families are endemic
    • -one bat species has its own private little family 
    • -500 species of endemic fish species
    • -60 endemic bird species
  37. Why there's so many endemic species in Indo-Burma hotspot
    • • All war areas and there is landmines everywhere that haven’t been cleared
    • • For people this is horrible but for animals seem to sense where the bombs are and can avoid them
    • • They are not getting blown up and the people don’t want to go where these bombs are so they are not disturbing animals
    • • WHOLE vast region where people really haven’t been going a very long time
    • • As a result all the destruction that occurred during the world war is allowing the animals to recover and be more bio diverse
    • • More scientists are willing to go in now and we are discovering these animals
    • • FOR THE TIME BEING it is very interesting in that all of this weaponry and destruction is there but its to the advantage of thewildlife
  38. Mekong River
    • • River and Delta is 12 longest in the world
    • • lot of political problems
    • • More political problems than any other major river because it goes through so many countries that have been at war with each  much
    • • It is the only river that has a commission that is overseen by the UN
    • • Biggest problem = starts in China, and whoever lives at the top of the river controls the river with damning
    • • Affects LAOS which is all the way at the bottom and affect wildlife
    • • Mekong is important = because it has higher biodiversity per unit of measure compared to the AMAZON
    • • Giant carp, Stingrays (7 ft by 7 ft)
    • • Giant Sea Lice
    • • Damming risks all of these fish
    • • China needs dams to power country and homes
    • • All other countries want fish (food security)
    • • Sustainable development^
  40. Dolphin
    • -Very small isolated populations around south east asia
    • -Used to be in Mekong River
  41. Indian sub continent
    • • Lots of eco zones, forests, swamp lands, grasslands, rivers, a lot of different types of ecosystems there
    • • Also has its own archipelago island
    • • Very influenced by summer monsoons and this causes major seasonal variations in habitats
    • • The Indian Subcontinent alone contains 160 ecozones.
  42. Asiatic lion (Asian lion)
    • • Only about 300 left and only occur in forests of India
    • • Their historic range was through iran, Greece, Italy and India
    • • very tiny population now
  43. Jackal
    • • Called a jackal but not related to jackal
    • • More closely related to wolf and coyote than jackal from Ethiopian region
  44. Indian Rhinos
    • • One horned rhino, occur throughout Indian sub continent
    • • These rhinos are possibly even more endangered in capita than the African rhinos
  45. Cats
    • • Leopards and tigers
    • -distributed through equator and very high altitudes like Siberia
    • • Snow, and Indian leopards
    •  -Snow leopard is closely related to the tiger than to other leopards
  46. Indian Tigers
    • • Professional poaching groups
    • • Tiger parts get sent to India for medicine
    • • Trap, poisoning, electrocution, shooting
    • • 4 ways of killing tigers ^^
  47. Water Buffalo
    • -originated in oriental realm and are still found there in wild,
    • • Found in Thailand and Bangladesh
    • • Fall under very important cattle category
  48. Oriental realm is so heavily
    forested and because of this it has similarities to the neotropics
  49. Oriental realm = ________location
    • central
    • -North: Neartic
    • -West: Ethiopian
    • -East: Neotropic
    • -not too much influence from the oceanic realm
  50. Meerkats
    -Have to climb as high as they can to get a good view
  51. Hyrax
    • o Amazing spines that help them flex their way up the trees.
    • o Improving grip as well these Hyrax hang out in trees all day
    • o Succulent leaves are hard to find on the ground so they have to climb trees to get food that counts as both water and food in succulent leaves
  52. How much of the earth's realm is still covered by trees?
  53. Sloth
    • • Hangs from hooks which are its claws, there main predator is coyotes
    • o Fruit makes up most of their diet
    • o Also eat insect larvae and protein as well
  54. Sunbear of Indonesia
    • -spend more time in trees than any other bear 
    • -going down trees is almost just as easy as going up for them
  55. Ameridou
    • • Uses grips mainly, its tail is so well muscled it can support the animals entire weight
    • • Eat ants and termite nests in trees mainly with long ass tongue
  56. Wooly Monkeys
    • • Use tails that are long and strong
    • -can climb through forest in the tops of trees don’t need to come down
  57. Squirrels
    • • Spectacular jumpers and front legs serve as shock absorbers
    • • Superb sight enables squirrels to jump distances with great accuracy
    • • During mating season squirrels start to pursue females
    • • Gray squirrel can leap 8 feet
  58. Flying Squirrel
    • • Can fly up to 50 feet perfectly
    • • Should be called glider squirrels though
    • • They are not territorial and forage together
    • • They can steer because two squirrels took off from one tree but landed on different ones
    • • Not agile enough to hide from birds of prey so they sleep all day in holes and come out at night
    • • The shoulder, hand, fingers all changed dramatically due to adaptation,
  59. Fruit bats of Australia
    • • Have developed true power flight
    • • So big that they cant roost in holes and sleep out at in open
    • • They use their hooked claw to hang out in branches
    • • As fruit bat chooses its perch, it goes into glide and hooks the branch
    • • Wings need delicate grooming and the wing membrane is the fastest growing out of all mammalian tissues
    • • Take off too requires a special technique
    • • Once a year fruit bats are extremely strong flyers
    • • They can travel great distances as much as 30 miles in one night if its necessary to find food
    • • They drink water by getting their chest wet first and then lick it off their feathers
    • • Crocodiles eat this animal in water if they get too close or wet to fly
    • • Huge wings are good for flying but not good for maneuverability
    • • Eagles know where bats blind spots are and attack from below
    • • They also snatch them as they hang from branches
  60. Southern Indian Monkey
    • • Lorris
    • • Have elongated thumbs and loss their index fingers
    • • This makes there grip much wider and they can hold on so tightly its impossible to detach one from its branch
    • • With long reach, and gripping they can cross from one tree to another easily
    • • Live in small groups of 4 to 5
    • • Pee on hands to mark territory and maybe for better grip
    • • Its eyes are placed in a way so it can judge distance with accuracy
    • • Gripping feet and balancing tails leave hands free for the kill
  61. Lesser Bush Baby
    • -Africa 
    • • Only comes out at night
    • • They have a regular pathway they mark with their urine
    • • Related to Lorris and very similar to them
    • • But their way of getting around is completely different
    • • They don’t hunt by stealth but by speed
    • • Before it takes off it moves its head from side to side
  62. Golden Lemur
    • -Madagascar 
    • -can eat poisonous stuff
    • -Madagascar plants protect themselves in many ways
    • • Eat plants with spikes
    •  -lemurs are good at eating these still though
    • • Jump from trunk to trunk and only in slow motion can you see how accurately they land
    • • jump around trees like nothing
    • • Feet used as shock absorbers
    • • There back feet are flat and enormous toe so they can latch on to trunk as soon as they hit it
    • • A female can do all that crap even while carrying a baby
    • • Main enemy is the fossa
  63. Fossa
    • -like a giant mongoose 
    • • Four footed runner and a close match in speed 
    • • An unusually tail helps them with balance and lets them navigate thin branches
    • • Fossa has adaptation to come down trees with toes pointed down and could come down trees very neatly and easily
  64. Gibbons
    • -not monkeys but small apes 
    • • Around 40 feet jumping distance and can move at amazing speeds
    • • They can also change direction in mid swing
    • • Ball and socket joints that allows them to preform these amazing aerial gymnastics
    • • There unique wrist joint enables them to rotate the body around the hand and not the shoulder
    • -this saves a lot of energy’
    • • Every animal other than birds even bird sometimes have issues
    • • Every animal that doesn't have wings that relies on leaping from great height from tree to tree over a distance, or even if they use tails to balance on to something
    • • They will lean out and go on end of branch, the branch could break and life in forests is a very risky lifestyle
    • • If you become injured nature is cruel and you will probably die and this will impact their ability to climb in the forest
    • -wont be able to run away
Card Set
Geog 112: Week 8