ANS 201 final

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  1. earliest form of preservation
  2. breed known for cutability
  3. this bacteria can grow in cool places like drains and is a major concern for ready to eat meats
    listeria monocytogenes
  4. this parasite will form cysts in tissue if ingested and was once a major concern in pork
    trichinella spiralis
  5. this is often used in the producction of fermented meats and is known as good bacteria
  6. this pathogen is a major concern in beef and can cause hemolytic uremic syndrome
    escherichia coli
  7. this bacteria forms spores that arent killed at cooking temps and are anerobic
    clostridium perfringes
  8. a large concern in the poultry industry found inside eggs and was number one cause of food related deaths in 2011
    salmonella strains
  9. what is HACCP and what does it stand for?
    • hazard analysis critical control points
    • it is a system used to help in food safety
  10. name the three types of hazards and give an example of each.
    • Chemical-->bleach/ pesticides
    • physical-->glass, metal, wood, bone
    • biological-->pathogens
  11. name a benifit and a downfall of hormone use
    • increase growth efficiency
    • less marbling
  12. would you expect loin or limb muscles to be more tender why?
    loin, less collagen
  13. name a positive and a negative of bos indicus cattle
    • very hardy
    • poor quality meats
  14. what are common names for fat deposits and in what order do they begin developing
    • visceral: 1 KPH kidney pelvic heart
    • intramuscular: 4 marbling
    • intermuscular: 2/3 seamfat
    • subcutaneous: 2/3 backfat
  15. identify wheter red or white muscle fibers are associated with each
    1:marathon runner
    2:larger diameter
    3:more mitochondria
    4: rapid contraction
    5:use oxidative energy metabolism
    • 1:red
    • 2:white
    • 3:red
    • 4:white
    • 5:red
  16. __ is the color of meat with cure added but not yet cooked.
  17. __ is the fresh meat pigment that is brown in color.
  18. __ is the state of fresh meat pigment in cooked uncured product.
    denatured metmyoglobin
  19. __, __, and __, are all products of irreversible reactions.
    • nitrosomyoglobin
    • nitrosohemochrome
    • denatured metmyoglobin
  20. __ is the pigment in cured cooked meat.
  21. __is the fresh meat color related to bloom or exposure to oxygen that causes a bright red color
  22. what are the nutrients that meat is a great source of?
    protein, B-vitamins, riboflavin, iron
  23. what is true of clostridium botulinum?
    • produces a toxin that is injected into human faces during cosmetic surgery
    • it is a problem in canning (anerobic)
  24. tell wheather each increases or decreases dressing percentage:
    1: manure stuck to hide
    2: animals off feed for 8 hours before slaughter
    3: animal is fat
    4: animal is heavily muscled
    • 1: decrease
    • 2: increase
    • 3: decrease
    • 4: increase
  25. when meat pH is high having a lot of negative charges, will it hold more water or less at its isoelectric point?
  26. what chain of events occurs when the animal is exanguinated
    • no oxygen delivered
    • anerobic metabolism begins
    • lactic acid production
    • waste/heat not able to be removed
    • pH drops
  27. explain DFD and PSE.
    • Dark firm dry: long term stress depletes glycogen stores less lactic acid keeps pH higher so it can hold more water
    • Pale soft exudative: short term stress leads to lactic acid build up just before death to decrease pH and water holding capacity
  28. what 6 factors influence bacterial growth and why are each a concern in meat?
    • Food--> meat has supply of nutrients for bacterial growth
    • acidity--> meat is at a pH of around 5.8 which is good for bacterial growth as they like 4.6-7.5
    • temperature--> if not chilled or cooked properly meat is a good temp for bacteria to grow 40-140 0F for 4 hours
    • time--> if held in danger zone for 4 hours bacterial growth is optimized
    • oxygen-->ground meats have been exposed to oxygen for an aerobic environment and most bacteria are aerobes
    • moisture--> bacteria need >.85 water activity most meats are about .99 so they have water for growth
  29. what are five principals to cutting meat?
    • fat from lean
    • high value from low value
    • thick from thin
    • tender from tough
    • cut perpendicular to grain
  30. from top to bottom left to right what are the names parts
    • jowl  boston butt      loin
    • foot  picnic shoulder  belly/spare ribs

    ham   foot
  31. what are the total by products percentage body weight for beef?
  32. what are the total by products percentage body weight for lamb
  33. what are the total by products percentage body weight for pork
  34. what are the total by products?
    hide, edible fats, variety meats, blood, inedible fats/bones/meat scraps
  35. edible organs as percent body weight for beef lamb and hog?
    • 4%
    • 4%
    • 7%
  36. name four byproducts and uses
    • beef extract: from water used in canning and cooking
    • blood: sausages
    • tripe: from the beef stomach fresh or in sausage
    • chitterlings: pig intestines
    • cheek head meat: sausage
    • intestines: natural casing
    • testicles: usually deep fried (beef lamb turkey)
  37. what is rendering?
    to reduce convert or melt down animal tissues by heating
  38. from top to bottom left to right name the whole sale cuts
    • chucks 5th and 6th rib      loin  sirloin round
    • brisket                 plate   flank
    •                                   ^
    •                            12th and 13th
  39. for veal highest priced wholsale cut
    hotel rack
  40. lamb wholesale cuts top to bottom left to right
    • neck       rack    loin  leg>can be sirloin offoron
    • shoulder breast
    • shank
  41. what is the highest value retail cut of beef?
  42. which wholesale cut does bacon come from?
  43. name one cut from a beef loin
    short loin, strip loin, tenderloin
  44. what are the two whole sale cuts of the pig shoulder?
    • boston butt
    • picnic shoulder
  45. is the lamb sirloin part of the loin or leg?
  46. what does MAP stand for in packaging?
    Modified atmoshpere packaging
  47. what are some positives in MAP packaging air environment?
    prevent oxidation, preserve color, discourage aerobic bacteria growth
  48. what are the percentages of the total of types of cattle slaughtered?
    • steers: 49.3%
    • heifers: 29%
    • dairy cows: 8.7%
    • other cows: 11.3%
    • bulls: 1.7%
  49. what are average live weights for beef pork sheep and goats?
    • beef: 1277
    • pork: 275
    • sheep: 138
    • goat: 63
  50. what are average carcass weights for beef pork and sheep?
    • beef: 773
    • pork: 206
    • sheep: 70
  51. know general trends in head and product production through years
    head goes down product goes up
  52. what are the top four markets for US beef?
    • Canada
    • mexico
    • japan
    • south korea
  53. what is the allowable limit (%) of mechanically separated meat in products?
  54. what does LFBT stand for?
    lean finely textured beef trimmings
  55. what is the functionality of ammonium hydroxide? 3 things.
    • increase binding capacity
    • improve texture
    • antimicrobial activity
  56. how do egg whites inhibit bacterial growth? 2 things
    • buffer pH of 7
    • enzymatic activity to kill bacteria
  57. what is the purpose of the yolk?
    high quality food source for embryo
  58. what does the inner shell membrane do?
    keeps bad bacteria out
  59. what doesn the external shell do?
    protects from damage, microbes, dessication, and regulates gas and water exchange
  60. give the percentages and uses of eggs.
    • 31.6% further processing
    • 57.3% retail
    • 8% foodservice
    • 3.1% exported
  61. what determines the health differances of eggs?
    feed given to chickens
  62. what is the approximate percentage of whole egg composition?
    • water: 75%
    • protein: 12-14%
    • lipids: 10-12%
    • minerals: 1%
  63. what percentage of shell white and yolk is a typical large size egg?
    • shell: 9-12%
    • white: 60-63%
    • yolk: 30-33%
  64. what is the approximate biological value of the protein in an egg
  65. what is the approximate biological value of the protein in beef
  66. what is the approximate biological value of the protein in milk
  67. what is the approximate biological value of the protein in soybeans
  68. what is the approximate biological value of the protein in wheat, whole
  69. what is the approximate biological value of the protein in corn
  70. what is the approximate biological value of the protein in beans, dry
  71. what is the composition of an egg white?
    • water: 90%
    • protein: 10%
    • carbohydrates: 1%
  72. what is the composition of the egg yolk?
    • water: 50%
    • protein: 17%
    • lipids: 33%
  73. what are the main egg minerals?
    • calcium
    • phosphorous
    • iron
    • ptassium
    • sodium
    • magnesium
    • zinc
    • copper
    • manganese
    • selenium
  74. true false. egg proteins contain all nine essential amino acids
  75. what is the pre-slaughter regime in chickens?
    • feed withdrawl
    • catching and cooping
    • transportation
    • holding at the processing plant
  76. how long must feed be with held for broilers and turkey?
    • broilers: 8-12 hours
    • turkeys: 6-12 hours
  77. what are the steps in slaughter?
    • unloading
    • stunning
    • exsanguination
    • feather removal
    • evisceration
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ANS 201 final
final test
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