Preliminary General Examination

  1. When is written consent to performs surgery obtained from the owner?
    obtained usually when history is taken
  2. Which part is considered the most important in the Preliminary General Examination?
    Owner's complaint and anamnesis (history)
  3. What are the two parts of anamnesis?
    Past history and Immediate history
  4. Why does signalment need to be accurate?
    Legal evidence regarding animal may be required
  5. What is signalment?
    • physical description of the animal (9):
    • breed
    • age
    • sex
    • color
    • markings
    • brand
    • name and number
    • tattoo marks
    • permanent blemishes or defects
  6. This refers to identifying the animal as looking healthy or sick.
    General demeanor
  7. This refers to looking that all parts of the skeleton is covered with flesh giving the body a well-rounded appearance
  8. Anatomical areas most used to determine condition
    Hips and ribs
  9. The state of being where the skin is smooth, glossy, pliable and elastic is called:
    Good Health
  10. The state of being where the skin is dry, scruffy, loss of elasticity and it commonly referred to as being "hidebound" is called
    Bad health
  11. Examples of mucus membranes
    gums, conjuctiva of the eyes, opening of the prepuce, vulva
  12. The color of the mucus membranes due to normal reflection of circulation blood
  13. What color of mucus membranes is indicative of anema?
    pale pink to white
  14. What color of mucus membranes is indicative of lack of O2 in the blood? Referred to as cyanotic.
  15. What color of mucus membranes is indicative of hepatic toxicity and often called icteric?
  16. What can alter the heart beat?

    • Fever (pyrexia)
    • Local heart disease
    • Inflammation
    • Pain
    • Weather
    • Exercise
    • Excitement
  17. Dog Pulse rate
    60-120 bpm
  18. cat pulse rate
    110-130 bpm
  19. sheep/goat pulse rate
    70-80 bpm
  20. cattle pulse rate
    40-80 bpm
  21. horse pulse rate
    28-40 bpm
  22. swine pulse rate
    60-80 bpm
  23. poultry pulse rate
    200-400 bpm
  24. In general, which types of animals have slower heart rates?
    • Male over female
    • Large over small
  25. This refers to listening with a stethoscope to the sounds produced by body organ functions.
  26. criteria for good auscultation
    • quiet room
    • earpieces directed anteriorly to align with the ear canal
    • low pitch sound = bell portion
    • high pitch sound = diaphragm portion
  27. The fluctuation of the heart rate with concurrent respiration that is normal in the dog is:
    sinus arrhythmia
  28. The name given to the sound of fluid accumulation in the alveoli.
    crackles or rales
  29. The name given to the sound of an airway obstruction
    wheezes or rhonchii
  30. Two phases of respiration
    • Inspiration- rising of chest wall
    • Expiration - return of chest wall to normal resting position
  31. What is the most important parameter we monitor for in surgery?
  32. Dog respiratory rate
    10-30 rpm
  33. cat respiratory rate
    20-30 rpm
  34. cattle respiratory rate
    10-30 rpm
  35. horse respiratory rate
    8-15 rpm
  36. swine respiratory rate
    8-16 rpm
  37. sheep/goat respiratory rate
    10-20 rpm
  38. chicken respiratory rate
    15-30 rpm
  39. What does coughing at night or during sleep indicate?
    heart disease
  40. Which is the primary sign of infection?
  41. Where is the temperature of a bird taken?
    Under the wing
  42. dog/cat/cattle temperature
    100-102 F
  43. sheep temperature
    102-104 F
  44. Goat Temperature
    101-104 F
  45. Horse temperature
    99-101 F
  46. swine temperature
    100-104 F
  47. What alters body temperature?
    • Exercise
    • Season
    • Pregnancy
    • Transportation
    • Excitement
  48. What color of mucus membranes is indicative of polycythemia or hyper oxygenemia?
    dark red
  49. normal color and appearance of urine
    amber to yellow and clear
  50. What color is concentrated urine?
    dark amber to dark yellow
  51. What does red tinged urine indicate?
    blood or phenothiazines
  52. What does green tinged urine indicate?
    liver bilirubin
  53. What does cloudy urine indicate
    pus, bacteria, crystals
  54. what does black urine indicate?
    monday morning sickness (myoglobinuria)
  55. What does colorless urine indicate?
    not concentrated possible renal insufficiency
  56. What does purplish urine indicate
    Diathiazanine Iodine (Dizan)
  57. What does blue urine indicate?
    methylene blue
  58. What is excessive drinking called?
  59. What is excessive urination called?
  60. What is urination in frequent small amounts called?
  61. What is difficult urination called?
  62. What is straining during urination called?
  63. Order of examination of the head:
    eyes, oral cavity, pharynx, ears and nose
  64. This refers to the reflex associated with shining a light in ones eye
    papillary light reflex

    • miosis: pupil constriction is normal
    • mydriasis: dilation in the presence of light is abnormal
  65. This refers to the phenomenon that if a light is shone into one eye and constricts, the other eye should also constrict without shining a light into it also
    consensual light reflex
  66. What are the lung lobes?
    • L: Apical, Cardiac, Diaphragmatic
    • R: Apical, Cardiac, Diaphragmatic, Accessory (Caudate)
  67. What are the 4 heart valves and their location when auscultating?
    • Left side: pulmonary - intercostal space 3
    • aortic - intercostal space 4
    • mitral - intercostal space 5

    Right side: tricuspid - intercostal space 4
  68. 5 superficial lymph nodes commonly palpated during the Preliminary General Examination?
    • parotid
    • mandibular
    • axillary
    • inguinal
    • popliteal
  69. The correct order for the Preliminary General Examination:
    History/Anamnesis > Signalment >Clinical Examination of the patient: demeanor, condition, external body surfaces, mucus membranes, pulse, respiration, temperature, feces, urine, examination of the head: eyes, oral cavity, phayrnx, ears and nose, papillary and consensual light reflexes, auscultation of heart and lung, palpation of superficial lymph nodes, bloodwork (cbc/serology)
Card Set
Preliminary General Examination
Steps taken for exam