1. what are drugs
    Drugs are chemical substances that are not required for normal maintenance of body functions and that produce a biological effect in an organism
  2. FDA:
    Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act:
    Childhood Vaccine Act:
    Prescription Drug User Fee Act:
    Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act:
    FDA Moderation Act:
    • FDA: regulates the use of serums, vaccines and blood products
    • Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act: drugs could not be marketed unless tested
    • Childhood Vaccine Act: regulates safety of biologics
    • Prescription Drug User Fee Act: nongeneric drug manufactures must pay fees
    • Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act: clear label
    • FDA Moderation Act: prescription Drug User Fee
  3. Before a new drug may be marketed it must go through what testing
    animal human
  4. what are the list of drugs that require prescriptions
    • Parenterally administered
    • Hypnotics
    • Narcotics
    • Those that cause dependence or contain habit-forming substances
    • Toxic
  5. what are OTC drugs
    • Drugs that are considered safe for self-administration
    • Drugs that have lesser potency (EX. Motrin)
    • Must be reviewed by FDA and deemed safe
  6. what are alternative therapy drugs
    are they regulated by the fda
    are they considered drugs or food
    • herbal and dietary supplements
    • no
    • food
  7. what is the DEA
    Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA): government agency responsible for drug enforcement
  8. list some drug sources
    where are most drugs made from
    • They come from natural and synthetic sources. Animal
    • Plant
    • microorganisms
    • Most drugs are made from synthetic materials in laboratories.
  9. what is the trad name of a drug
    Trade name (proprietary) = Given by a manufacturer and is copyrighted and cannot be used by another manufacturer. Usually capital letter ‘Tylenol’

    has a 17 year patent
  10. what is the chemical name of a drug
    what is the generic name
    Chemical name = the drug presents its exact chemical formula and always remain the same.

    • is the name given to the drug before its official approval for use
    • acetaminophen = Tylenol
  11. what are actions that drugs can do
    Drugs do not have the capacity to change cellular structure, but decrease the rate and range of physiologic process of the body
  12. what is onset of action
    what is the maximum therapeutic response
    what is the duration of action
    Drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and then excreted from the body.  As this process takes place, the drug reaches a point at which it has intended effect. 

    Continues to be absorbed and reaches a peak concentration level

    The time the drug is in the body in an amount large enough to be therapeutic is called Duration of action.
  13. all drugs must be in what form to be absorbed
  14. drugs that are in what form must go through what phase before they can be absorbed
    • solid
    • pharmaceutic phase
  15. what drugs do not go through the pharmaceutic phase
    oral parenteral drugs
  16. what is pharmacokinetics
    • The process that controls absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the drugs by the body.
    • lipid solubility
  17. individuals process drugs depending on what
    age, nutritional status, ethnicity, existing pathology, immune status, and many other factors.
  18. how do drugs move through the body
    where are oral drugs abosrobed
    • Drugs move by **passive diffusion or active transportation (pinocytosis)
    • in the small bowel
  19. in pharmacokinetics drugs must be ________ to gain acess to the systematic circulation
  20. what is the first pass effect
    refers to the partial metabolism of a drug before it reaches circulation
  21. drugs that are administered where avoid the the first pass effect by going directly to the systemic circulation
    sublingual, vaginal, or parenteral route
  22. after absorption of a drug the drug is distributed where
    what is the stage
    • to the target site
    • it is the site where rich supply of blood attracts drugs quickly while muscles and fatty tissues attract drugs more slowly
  23. in what area period are pregnant women not allowed to recieve drugs or contrast agents without the physicians okay
    1st trimester
  24. what is metabolism
    where does it occur
    what is metabolism affected by
    Process by which the body changes the chemical structure of the drug

    in liver

    • Age
    • Health or emotional status
    • Time of day
    • Pathology or presence of other drugs
  25. excretion/half life of the drug gets excreted where
    what is half life
    what is clearance rate
    • in kidneys
    • Half life is when 50% of drug has lost presence in body
    • Clearance rate is when the entire drug has been removed from the body
  26. what is pharmacodynamics
    Study of the method or mechanism of drug action on living tissues or the response of tissues to chemical agents at various sites of the body.
  27. what are the ways theat drugs can alter the physiological effects
    • Altering blood pressure
    • Altering heart rate
    • Altering urinary output
    • Altering function of the central or peripheral nervous system
    • Altering changes in all other body systems
  28. what is the pharmocodynamic used for
    • Control pain
    • Cure a disease
    • Alleviate symptoms
    • Diagnose a disease
  29. what is the drug receptor in pharmacodynamics
    what is affinity
    what is therapuetic index
    • The area that the drug is intended to go to
    • Attraction between drug & receptor relationship amount that produces desired affect & unwanted effect
  30. drugs _____ must be checked before mixing two drugs in one syringe or IV line
    Any drug that is ______ or has a sediment must be discarded
    • compatibility
    • discolored
  31. Side effect = ?
    Adverse reaction = ?
    Toxic reaction = ?
    • Side effect = When an unintended effect is expected to occur and is essentially not harmful
    • Adverse reaction = An effect that can be life-threatening
    • Toxic reaction = Unwanted effect that is not an adverse reaction or an allergic reaction
  32. Drug idiosyncrasy: ?
    Drug idiosyncrasy: unexpected effect from a drug (i.e., drug given for sleep causes the patient to become hyperactive)
  33. what should the RT always know where this is
    emergency drug cart
  34. how can drugs be classified
    • Physiologic effect on receptors
    • Physiologic effects on specific body systems
    • Overall physiologic effects
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