Muslces not normally used during normal breathing; includes the sternocleidomastoid muscles of the neck.
Vocab Exam 2: Acetylcholine
Chemical neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system.
Vocab Exam 2: Acute radiation syndrome
The clinical course that usually begins within hours of exposure to a radiation source. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, fever, and headache. The long-term symptoms are dose-related and are hematopietic and gastrointestinal.
Vocab Exam 2: Adipose tissue
A connective tissue containing large amounts of lipids. Also referred to as fat tissue.
Vocab Exam 2: Adventitious
A type of breath sound that occurs in addition to the normal breath sounds; examples are crackles and wheezing.
Vocab Exam 2: Aerobic metabolism
Metabolism that can proceed only in the process of oxygen.
Vocab Exam 2: Afterload
The pressure in the aorta against which the left ventricle must pump blood.
Vocab Exam 2: Alert and oriented
A determination made when assessing mental status by looking at whether the patient is oriented to four elements: person, place, time and the event itself. each element provides information about different aspects of the patient's memory.
Vocab Exam 2: Alveoli
Sac-like units at the end of the bronchioles where gas exchange takes place (singular: alveolus).
Vocab Exam 2: Anaerobic metabolism
The metabolism that takes place in the absence of oxygen; the principal product is lactic acid.
Vocab Exam 2: Anaphylaxis
An extreme systemic form of an allergic reaction involving two or more body systems.
Vocab Exam 2: Angle of impact
The angle at which an object hits another; this characterizes the force vectors involved and has a bearing on patterns of energy dissipation.
Vocab Exam 2: Aphasia
The impairment of language that affects the production or understanding of speech and the ability to read or write.
Vocab Exam 2: Arterial air embolism
Air bubbles in the arterial blood vessles.
Vocab Exam 2: Ascites
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
Vocab Exam 2: Aspiration
Entry of fluids or solids into the trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Vocab Exam 2: AVPU
A method of assessing mental status by determining whether a patient is Awake and alert, responsive to Verbal stimuli or Pain, or Unresponsive; used principally in the inital assessment.
Vocab Exam 2: Base station
Assembly of radio equipment consisting of at least a transmitter, receiver, and antenna connection at a fixed location.
Vocab Exam 2: Beck's Triad
The combination of a narrowed pulse pressure, muffled heart tones, and JVD associated with cardiac tamponage; usually resulting from penetrating chest trauma.
Vocab Exam 2: Biot respirations
Characterized by an irregular rate, pattern, and volume of breathing with intermittent periods of apnea; results from increased intracranial pressure. Also called ataxic respirations.
Vocab Exam 2: Biotelemetry
Transmission of physiologic data, such as an ECG, from the patient to a distant point of reception (commonly referred to in EMS as "telemetry").
Vocab Exam 2: Brisance
The shattering effect of a shock wave and its ability to cause disruption of tissues and structures.
Vocab Exam 2: Bruit
An abnormal "whoosh"-like sound of turbulent blood flow moving through a narrowed artery.
Vocab Exam 2: Burn shock
The shock or hypoperfusion caused by a burn injury and the tremendous loss of fluids.
Vocab Exam 2: Cardiac output
Amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute, calculated by multiplying the stroke volume by the heart rate per minute.
Vocab Exam 2: Carina
Points at which the trachea bifurcates (divides) into the left and right mainstream bronchi.
Vocab Exam 2: Cavitation
Cavity formation; shock waves that push tissues in front of and lateral to the projectile and may not necessarily increase that wound size or cause permanent injury but can result in cavitation.
Vocab Exam 2: Cellular telephones
Low-powered portable radios that communicate through an interconnected series of repeater stations called "cells."
Vocab Exam 2: Chemorecptors
Monitor the levels of O2, CO2, and the pH of the CSF and then provide feedback to the respiratory centers to modify the rate and depth of breathing based on the body's need at any given time.
Vocab Exam 2: Chemotactic factors
The factors that cause cells to migrate into an area.
Vocab Exam 2: Chief complaint
The problem for which the patient is seekeing help.
Vocab Exam 2: Compartment syndrome
A condition that develops when edema and swelling result in increased pressure within soft tissues, causing circulation to be compromised, possibly resulting in tissue necrosis.
Vocab Exam 2: Compensated shock
The early stage of shock, in which the body can still compensate for blood loss.
Vocab Exam 2: Concept formation
Pattern of understanding based on initially obtaining information.
Vocab Exam 2: Cookbook medicine
Treatment based on a protocol or algorithm without adequate knowledge of the patient being treated.
Vocab Exam 2: Crush syndrome
Significant metabolic derangement that can lead to renal failure and death. It develops when crushed extremities or other body parts remain trapped for prolonged periods.
Vocab Exam 2: Current health status
A composite picture of a number of factors in a patient's life, such as dietary habits, current medications, allergies, exercise, alcohol or tabacco use, recreational drug use, sleep patterns and disorders, and immunizations.
Vocab Exam 2: Cushing's reflex
The combination of a slowing pulse, rising blood pressure, and erratic respiratory patterns; a grave sign for patients with head trauma.
Vocab Exam 2: Cyanosis
A bluish-grey skin color that is caused by reduced levels of oxygen in the blood.
Vocab Exam 2: Data interpretation
The process of formulating a conclusion based on comparing the patient's condition with information from your training, education, and past experiences.
Vocab Exam 2: Decompensated shock
The late stage of shock, when blood pressure is falling.
Vocab Exam 2: Desquamation
The continuous shedding of the dead cells on the surface of the skin.
Vocab Exam 2: Detailed physical exam
The part of the assessment process in which a detailed area-by-area exam is performed on patients whose problems cannot be readily identified or when more specific information is needed about problems identified in the focused history and physical exam.
Vocab Exam 2: Distributive shock
A condition that occurs when there is widespread dilation of the resistance vessels, the capacitance vessels, or both.
Vocab Exam 2: Duplex
Radio system using more than one frequency to permit simultaneous transmission and reception.
Vocab Exam 2: Ecchymosis
Localized bruising or blood collection within or under the skin.
Vocab Exam 2: Ejection fraction
The portion of the blood ejected from the ventricle during systole.
Vocab Exam 2: Elastin
A protein that gives the skin its elasticity.
Vocab Exam 2: Electrical energy
The energy delivered in the form of high voltage.
Vocab Exam 2: Emergency medical dispatch
First aid instructions given by specially trained dispatchers to callers over the telephone while an ambulance is en route to the call.
Vocab Exam 2: Encoded
A message is put into a code before it is transmitted.
Vocab Exam 2: Enhanced 911 system
An emergency call-in system in which additional information such as the phone number and location of the caller is recorded automatically through sophisticated telephone technology and the dispatcher need only confirm the information on the screen.
Vocab Exam 2: Escharotomy
A surgical cut through the eschar or leathery covering of a burn to allow for swelling and minimize the potential for development of compartment syndrome in a circumferentially burned limb or the thorax.
Vocab Exam 2: Expiration
Passive movement of air out of the lungs; also called exhalation.
Vocab Exam 2: Expiratory reserve volume
the amount of air that you can exhale following a normal exhalation; average volume is about 1,200 mL.
Vocab Exam 2: Federal Communications Commission
The federal agency that has jurisdiction over interstate and international telephone and telegraph services and satellite communications, all of which may involve EMS activity.
Vocab Exam 2: Field diagnosis
A determination of what a paramedic thinks is the patient's current problem, usually based on the patient history and the chief complaint.
Vocab Exam 2: Frequency
In radio communications, the number of cycles per second of a signal inversely related to the wavelength.
Vocab Exam 2: Gangrene
An infection commonly caused by C perfringens. The result is tissue destruction and gas production that may lead to death.
Vocab Exam 2: General impression
The overall initial impression that determines the priority for patient care; based on the patient's surroundings, the mechanism of injury, signs and symptoms, and the chief complaint.
Vocab Exam 2: Glomerular filtration
The first step in the formation of urine; calculated to determine renal function.
Vocab Exam 2: Glottis
The space in between the vocal cords that is the narrowest portion of the adult's airway; also called the glottic opening.
Vocab Exam 2: Heimlich maneuver
Abdominal thrusts performed to relieve a foreign body airway obstruction.
Vocab Exam 2: Hematochezia
Blood with the stool that is seperate. Caused by lower GI bleeds.
Vocab Exam 2: Hemostasis
The body's natural blood-clotting mechanism.
Vocab Exam 2: Hertz
Unit of frequency equal to 1 cycle per second.
Vocab Exam 2: History of present illness
Information about the chief complaint, obtained using the OPQRST mnemonic.
Vocab Exam 2: Homeostasis
A tendency to constancy or stability in the body's internal enviroment.
Vocab Exam 2: Hypoxic drive
Secondary control of breathing that stimulates breathing based on decreased PaO2 levels.
Vocab Exam 2: Implosion
A bursting inward.
Vocab Exam 2: Initial assessment
the part of the assessment process that helps you identify immediately or potentially life-threatening conditions so that you can initiate lifesaving care.
Vocab Exam 2: Inspiration
The active process of moving air into the lungs; also called inhalation.
Vocab Exam 2: Inspiration reserve volume
The amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal inhalation; the amount of air that can be inhaled in addition to the normal tidal volume.
Vocab Exam 2: Keloid scar
An abnormal scar commonly found in people with darkly pigmented skin. It extends over the wound margins.
Vocab Exam 2: Ketamine
A drug with sedative, analgesic, and hypnotic properties; created in the laboratory from phencyclidine (PCP).
Vocab Exam 2: Kinetic energy
The energy associated with bodies in motion, expressed mathematically as half the mass times the square of the velocity.
Vocab Exam 2: Korotkoff sounds
Sounds related to blood pressure that are heard by stethoscope.
Vocab Exam 2: Kyphosis
Outward curve of the thoracic spine.
Vocab Exam 2: Laryngospasm
Severe constriction of the larynx in response to allergy, noxious stimuli, or illness.
Vocab Exam 2: Lordosis
Inward ccurve of the lumbar spine just above the buttocks An exaggerated form of lordosis results in the condition know as swayback.
Vocab Exam 2: Lund and Browder chart
A detailed version of the rule of nines chart that takes into consideration the changes in body surface area brought on by growth.
Vocab Exam 2: Macrophages
cells that developed from the monocytes that provide the body's first line of defense in the inflammatory process.
Vocab Exam 2: Mechanical energy
The energy that results from motion (kinetic energy) or that is stored in an object (potential energy).
Vocab Exam 2: Mechanism of injury
The way in which traumatic injuries occur; the forces that act on the body to cause damage.
Vocab Exam 2: Medical ambiguity
Uncertainty regarding the specific cause of the patient's condition.
Vocab Exam 2: Melanin
The pigment that gives skin its color.
Vocab Exam 2: Melena
Dark, tarry, very odorous stools caused by upper gastrointestinal bleeds.
Vocab Exam 2: Minute volume
the amount of air that moves in and out of the respiratory tract per minute.
Vocab Exam 2: Mottling
A condition of abnormal skin circulation, caused by vasoconstriction or inadequate circulation.
Vocab Exam 2: Multiplex
Method by which simultaneous transmission of voice and ECG signals can be achieved over a single radio frequency.
Vocab Exam 2: Myoglobin
A protein found in muscle that is released into the circulation after crush injury or other muscle damage and whose presence in the circulation may produce kidney damage.
Vocab Exam 2: Nature of illness
The general type of illness a patient is experiencing.
Vocab Exam 2: Nebulizer
A device for producing a fine spray or mist that is used to deliver inhaled medications.
Vocab Exam 2: Needle cricothyrotomy
Insertion of a 14- to 16-gauge over-the-needle IV catheter (angio-cath) through the cricothyroid membrane and into the trachea.
Vocab Exam 2: Negative-pressure ventilation
Drawing of air into the lungs; airflow from a region of higher pressure (outside the body) to a region of lower pressure (the lungs); occurs during normal (unassisted breathing).
Vocab Exam 2: Newton's first law of motion
The principle that a body at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an outside force.
Vocab Exam 2: Newton's second law of motion
The principle that the force that an object can exert is the product of its mass times acceleration.
Vocab Exam 2: Obstructive shock
Shock that occurs when there is ablock to blood flow in the heart or great vessels, causing an insufficient blood supply to the body's tissues.
Vocab Exam 2: Ongoing assessment
The part of the assessment process in which problems are reevaluated and responses to treatment are assessed.
Vocab Exam 2: Opioid
A synthetic narcotic not derived from opium; potent analgesics with sedative properties, including drugs such as fentanyl (Sublimaze) and alfentanil (Alfenta).
Vocab Exam 2: Orthostatic hypotension
A drop in systolic blood pressure when moving from a sitting to a standing position.
Vocab Exam 2: Pancuronium
A nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent; used to maintain paralysis following succinylcholine-facilitated intubation; also called Pavulon.
Vocab Exam 2: Parasthesias
Tingling or sensory change.
Vocab Exam 2: Parkland formula
A formula that recommends giving 4 mL of normal saline for each kilogram of body weight, multiplied by the percentage of body surface area burned; sometimes used to calculate fluid needs during lengthy transport times.
Vocab Exam 2: Past medical history
Information obtained during the patient history, such as the patient's general state of health, childhood and adult diseases, surgeries and hospitalizations, psychiatric and mental illness, or traumatic injuries, which may relate to the patient's current problem.
Vocab Exam 2: Pathologic fracture
A fracture that occurs in an area of abnormally weakened bone.
Vocab Exam 2: Patient history
Information about the patient's chief complaint, present symptoms, and previous illness.
Vocab Exam 2: Phrenic nerves
Nerves that innervate the diaphragm.
Vocab Exam 2: Physical examination
The process by which quantifiable, objective information is obtained from a patient about his or her overall state of health.
Vocab Exam 2: Physiologic dead space
Additional dead space created by intrapulmonary obstructions or atelectasis.
Vocab Exam 2: Physiologic fracture
A fracture that occurs when abnormal forces are applied to normal bone structures.
Vocab Exam 2: Pneumotaxic center
Area of the brain stem that has an inhibitory influence on inspiration.
Vocab Exam 2: Positive-pressure ventilation
Method for assisting ventilation (bag-mask or intubated) with high-flow air or oxygen.
Vocab Exam 2: Potential energy
The amount of energy stored in an object, the product of mass, gravity,
and height, that is converted into knetic energy and resulting in
injury, such as from a fall.
Vocab Exam 2: Pulsus paradoxus
A drop in the systolic BP of 10 mmHg or more; commonly seen in patients with pericardial tamponade or severe asthma.
Vocab Exam 2: Rales
Old terminology for abnormal breath sounds that have a fine, crackling quality, now called crackles.
Vocab Exam 2: Rapid trauma assessment
A unique and specialized assessment performed between the initial assessment and the focused physical exam of a trauma patient, usually on patients with a significant mechanism of injury, assessing specific parts of the entire body.
Vocab Exam 2: Repeater
Miniature transmitter that picks up a radio signal and rebroadcasts it, extending the range of a radio communications system.
Vocab Exam 2: Rule of nines
A system that assigns percentages to sections of the body, allowing calculation of the amount of skin surface involved in the burn area.
Vocab Exam 2: Rule of palm
A system that estimates total body surface area burned by comparing the affecting area with the size of the patient's palm, which is rougly equal to 1% of the patient's total body surface area.
Vocab Exam 2: Safe residual pressure
A term that implies that it is unsafe to continue using and oxygen cylinder with a pressure of less than 200 psi.
Vocab Exam 2: Scar revision
A surgical procedure to improve the appearance of a scar, reestablish function, or correct disfigurement from soft-tissue damage, surgical incision, or lesion.
Vocab Exam 2: Scene size-up
A quick assessment of the scene and its surroundings made to provide information about scene safety and the mechanism of injury or nature of illness, before you enter and begin patient care.
Vocab Exam 2: Scoliosis
Sideways curvature of the spine.
Vocab Exam 2: Shearing
An applied force or pressure exerted against the surface and layers of the skin as tissues slide in opposite but parallel planes.
Vocab Exam 2: Signs
Indications of illness or injury that the examiner can see, hear, feel, smell, and so on.
Vocab Exam 2: Simplex
Method of radio communication using a single frequency that enables transmission or reception of voice or an ECG signal but is incapable of simultaneous transmission and reception.
Vocab Exam 2: Stenosis
Vocab Exam 2: Stroke volume
The volume of blood pumped forward with each ventricular contraction.
Vocab Exam 2: Subcutaneous
Beneath the skin.
Vocab Exam 2: Supraglottic
Located above the glottic opening, as in the upper airway structures.
Vocab Exam 2: Surfactant
A liquid protein substance that coats the alveoli in the lungs, decreases alveolar surface tension, and keeps the alveoli expanded; a low level in a premature baby contributes to respiratory distress syndrome.
Vocab Exam 2: Symptoms
The pain, discomfort, or other abnormality that the patient feels.
Vocab Exam 2: Tension lines
The pattern of tautness of the skin, which is arranged over body structures and affects how well wounds heal.
Vocab Exam 2: Therapy regulator
Attaches to the stem of the oxygen cylinder, and reduces the high pressure of gas to a safe range (about 50 psi).
Vocab Exam 2: Thermoregulation
The process by which the body maintains temperature through a combination of heat gain by metabolic processes and muscular movement and heat loss through respiration, evaporation, conduction, convection, and perspiration.
Vocab Exam 2: Trismus
Clenched teeth caused by spasms of the jaw muscles; occurs during seizures and head injuries.
Vocab Exam 2: Trunking
Sharing of radio frequencies by multiple agencies or systems.
Vocab Exam 2: Turgor
Loss of the elasticity in the skin.
Vocab Exam 2: Vallecula
An anatomic space, or "pocket," located between the base of the tongue and the epiglottis; an important anatomic landmark for endotracheal intubation.
Vocab Exam 2: Visual acuity
The ability or inability to see, and how well one can see.
Vocab Exam 2: Volkmann contracture
Deformity of the hand, fingers, and wrist resulting from damage to forearm muscles; develops from muscle ischemia and is associated with compartment syndrome.
Vocab Exam 2: Waddell triad
A pattern of automobile-pedestrian injuries with children and people of short stature in which (1) the bumper hits pelvis and femur, (2) the chest and abdomen hit the grille or low hood, and (3) the head strikes the ground.
Vocab Exam 2: Wavelength
The distance in a propagating wave from one point to the corresponding point on the next wave.
Vocab Exam 2: Whiplash
An injury to the cervical vertebrae or their supporting ligaments and muscles, usually resulting from sudden acceleration or deceleration.
Vocab Exam 2: Whistle-tip catheters
Soft plastic, nonrigid catheters, also called French catheters.
Vocab Exam 2: Zone of coagulation
The reddened area surrounding the leathery and sometimes charred tissue that has sustained a full-thickness burn.
Vocab Exam 2: Zone of hyperemia
In a thermal burn, the area that is least affected by the burn.
Vocab Exam 2: Zone of stasis
The peripheral area surrounding the zone of coagulation that has decreased blood flow and inflammation. This area can undergo necrosis within 24 to 48 hours after the injury, particularly if perfusion is compromised due to burn shock.
Vocab Exam 2 - TEEX Paramedic FT
Cards for TEEX Paramedic FT vocabulary exam 1, covering chapters 11-20 from AAOS Emergency Care in the Streets