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Examples of Delayed Reinforcer vs Immediate Reinforcers
- We may be inclined to engage in small immediate reinforcers
- (watching TV) rather than large delayed reinforcers (getting an A in a course)
- which require consistent study.
Reinforces the desired response each time it occurs
- Reinforces a response only part of the time. Though
- this results in slower acquisition in
- the beginning, it shows greater resistance to extinction later on.
The _____ or _____, comes
with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a reinforcer like food
or water. The bar or key is connected to devices that record the animal’s
operant chamber, or Skinner box
guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through successive approximations.
Reinforces the desired response each time it occurs.
Reinforces a response only part of the time. Though this results in slower acquisition in the beginning, it shows greater resistance to extinction later on.
- a response only after a specified number of responses. e.g., piecework pay.
After reward, brief pause, then returns to high rate
- Reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. This is hard to extinguish because of the unpredictability. (e.g., behaviors like gambling,
Reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed Increases responses as the anticipated time draws near (e.g., checking mail)
- Reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals, which produces slow, steady responses. Slow, steady responding (never know when…)
An aversive event that decreases the behavior it follows.
Ways to decrease Behavior
Although there may be some justification for occasional punishment, it usually leads to negative effects. like...
1.Results in unwanted fears.
- 2.Conveys no information to the organism.
- 3.Justifies pain to others.
- 4.Causes unwanted behaviors to reappear in its absence.
- 5.Causes aggression towards the agent.
- 6.Causes one unwanted behavior to appear in place of another.
Rats seem to develop ______ or mental representations, of the layout of the maze (environment).
Such cognitive maps are based on ___ ___ which becomes apparent when an incentive is given
The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments.
Unnecessary rewards can harm intrinsic motivation, Example...
- children promised a reward for playing with an interesting toy later play with the toy less than unpaid counterparts
It is eaiser for an orginism to learn to operate associations that are ___ or ____
Ecologically relevant, or Evolutionarily adaptive
similar to how stimuli are associated in the natural environment
E.g., teaching a pigeon to flap its wings to avoid shock
reinforcing good behavior increases the occurrence of these behaviors. Ignoring unwanted Behavior (whining) ...
decreases their occurrence.
Higher animals, especially humans, learn through observing and imitating others.
Neuroscientists discovered ____ ____ in the brains of animals and humans that are active during observational learning.
It also Helps with
empathy and theory of mind.
TRUE OR FALSE
children in elementary school who are exposed to violent television, videos, and video games express
During the late 20th century, the average child viewed some _____ TV murders
before finishing elementary school.