1. What is a genome?
    sequence of DNA or RNA that provides the complete set of hereditary information
  2. What is a chromosome?
    a physical unit of the DNA genome
  3. What is a gene?
    a functional unit of the genome, a sequence of DNA that encodes an RNA that may encode a protein
  4. how many pairs of chromosome are in human?
    23 pairs
  5. Who discovered transformation? and what is significant about it?
    Frederick Griffith, Discover transforming principle, which is genetic material could be Protein or DNA.
  6. Who determined that the transforming principle is DNA? How?
    • 1. Avery-Macleod-McCarty
    • 2. Purified material treated with enzymes that degrade protein and RNA-> Purified material retained. Purified material treated with DNA degrading enzyme -> material is destroyed
  7. Who determined that DNA is the genetic material of viruses? is DNA the only genetic material for viruses?
    • 1. Hershey & Chase
    • 2. No, DNA and RNA
  8. What is transfection?
    When DNA is introduced to eukaryotic cells, they gain new trait.
  9. What is a nucleoside? What is a nucleotide?
    • 1. base and sugar
    • 2. base, sugar, and phosphate
  10. What is the sugar for DNA
  11. What is the sugar for RNA?
  12. What are pyrimidine bases?
    Thymine(T) and Cytosine(C)
  13. Adenime(A), Guanine(G), and Uracil belong to what group of base?
  14. What is the bond formed b/w the base and sugar of DNA?
  15. What bond forms b/w the sugar and the phosphate of DNA?
    Phosphodiester bond
  16. What made up the backbone of the Polynucleotide?
    Sugar and Phosphate
  17. What is a polynucleotide?
    long chain of nucleotides linked by 5'-3' phosphodiester linkages
  18. What are the different b/w DNA and RNA?
    • 1. DNA doesn't have 2' OH, RNA does
    • 2. DNA is double strand, and RNA is single strand
    • 3. DNA has Thymine(T), and RNA has uracil(U).
  19. Who proposed the the double-helix structure for DNA?
    Watson and Crick
  20. What 3 pieces of evidence were used to make the DNA double-helix?
    • 1. X-ray from Rosalind
    • 2. Density of DNA
    • 3. Chargaff rule: proportion of G same as C, and A same as T
  21. What made the DNA and anion?
    The phosphate group
  22. What is the result of base stacking of DNA?
    forms a strong hydrophobic interaction b/w bases
  23. What is the bonds form b/w complementary bases? how many bonds form b/w A-T and G-C?
    • Hydrogen bonds
    • A-T has 2 H-bond
    • G-C has 3 H-bond
  24. how are bases of DNA pair? how are the two strands oriented?
    • A-T and G-C
    • Antiparallel
  25. What is the most common conformation of DNA found in cell?
  26. What is the Different b/w B form, a form, and z form of DNA
    • A form is found in DNA-protein complexes, right-handed, narrower and deeper major groove, and broader and shallow minor groove
    • B form major conformation found in cell, right-handed
    • Z form found in solution of high concentration of positively charge ions, left handed.
  27. True/false. Supercoiling occurs in both open and closed DNA
    False, Supercoiling occurs only in closed DNA, no free ends.
  28. what consider to be closed DNA?
    circular DNA (prokaryotes) and linear DNA (eukaryotes) anchored to a protein scaffold.
  29. What is topology?
    Overall comformation of DNA
  30. What does Topoisomearase do?
    remove DNA supercoiling
  31. how many type of topoisomerase are there?
    what are their functions?
    • 2 types:
    • Type I topoisomerase produce single strand break, do not require ATP
    • Type II topoisomerase produce double strand break, require ATP
  32. What is Gyrase?
    • type II topoisomerase found in prokaryotes
    • introduces negative supercoiling
  33. what is topoisomers?
    Same DNAs can be in different topology
  34. What is a linking number of supercoiling DNA? what are linking number characteristic?
    • number of time a strand has to pass the other strand to completely separated.
    • Lk is always an interger and invariable in close DNA.
  35. What is twist Number(Tw)?
    The number of helical turns of one strand
  36. What is writhing number(Wr)?
    The number of crossovers of helical axis
  37. What is negative supercoiling and positive supercoiling?
    • Negative supercoiling is twisting in the opposite direction to the two strands
    • positive supercoiling is twisting in the same direction as the two strands
  38. if the change in LK is negative, what does this mean? if Change in LK is positive?
    • Change LK negative -> negatively supercoiled
    • Change LK positive -> positively supercoiled
  39. true/false. Negative supercoiling can be converted into untwisting of the double helix
  40. What state of supercoiling is thermophilic bacterial DNAs and why?
    • positively supercoiled
    • keep the DNA from denaturing at high temperature
  41. What state of supercoiling does Nucleosome introduce to eukaryotes?
    Negative supercoiling
  42. Sequence of only one strand is often used to indicate DNA's genetic information. True/false
  43. What is a sense strand and antisense strand?
    • coding
    • template
  44. How are genetic information flow?
  45. What is the RNA that produce protein?
    Messenger RNA (mRNA)
  46. what regions must an mRNA have?
    5'UTR, coding, and 3'UTR region
  47. Bacterial transcription and translation occur in the same place. True/false
  48. Bacteria translation starts after transcription is complete. True/False
  49. Where do eukaryotic transcription occurs?
  50. Where do eukaryotic translation occurs?
  51. What is the different b/w eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene?
    Eukaryotic contain introns and exons
  52. Pre-mRNA is RNA containing intron. true/false
  53. How are introns removed?
    by splicing
Card Set
All chapters