PSY 469 Final

  1. Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking (DMST)

    Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE)

    Commercially Sexually Exploited Child (CSEC)
    Preferred terms for "Child Prostitution"
  2. Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking
    ___ as defined by Federal Law, is the commercial sexual exploitation of children within U.S. borders.

    - Person is a U.S. citizen or Lawful permanent resident under the age of 18
  3. Commercial Sex Act (CSA)
    any sex act in which anything of value is given to or received by any person

    • - prostitution
    • - stripping
    • - porno
  4. 12-14
    ___-___ is the average age of entry into prostitution in the United States
  5. African American
    Compared to other races, ___ girls represented the highest percentage of underage sex trafficking victims (63%)
  6. Bottom/Bottom Girl/Bottom Bitch
    title given to a prostitute who is the most trusted by the pimp
  7. Break/Break a Bitch
    act of a prostitute giving her money to a pimp
  8. Choose/Choose Up
    when a prostitute begins working for a pimp, she is said to have chosen that pimp
  9. Reckless Eyeballing
    a strictly forbidden act in which a prostituted girl looks at another pimp - she then belongs to the new pimp
  10. Circuit
    select group of tracks or cites that pimps transport prostitutes to in order to work
  11. Las Vegas
    San Diego
    Western Circuit cites include ____ among others
  12. Track
    a set area known for prostitution activity.
  13. Daddy
    what pimps require the prostitutes to call them
  14. Family/Folk
    group of people under the control of one pimp who plays the role of daddy
  15. Date/Turn a Trick
    the exchange when prostitution takes place or the activity of prostitution
  16. an outcall
    sending the prostituted people to the buyer's location
  17. in call
    arranging to have the buyer come to a house/apartment which may be the workplace of a single prostitute/small brothel
  18. Exit Fee
    price set by a pimp that must be paid by a prostitute when she wants to leave the pimp

    - The fee usually increases each day
  19. Finesse Pimp
    a pimp who prides himself on controlling others primarily through psychological manipulation .... the threat of violence is always there.
  20. Gorilla Pimp
    one who controls his victims almost entirely through violence
  21. The Game
    the sub-culture of prostitution.

    There are established rules, hierarchy, and language
  22. John/Trick/Buyer/Date
    the person buying a prostitute
  23. The Life
    the experience of being used in prostitution
  24. Lot Lizard
    a prostitute who works at truck stops
  25. Madam
    a female pimp, uncommon in street settings
  26. Out of Pocket
    the condition of a prostitute who has broke a rule set by her pimp; a prostitute who contacts/looks at another pimp is ___
  27. Quota
    amount of money a prostituted person must turn over to the pimp before she can come in for the night

    Can range from $300-$2000
  28. Renegade
    a person not under control of a pimp.  Very rare - almost with no exception, juveniles are not among these
  29. Square
    any person not involved in the prostitution subculture
  30. Stable/Family/Team
    terms for all of the prostitutes belonging to one pimp
  31. Sister/Wife
    what women in a pimp's stable call each other
  32. Seasoning
    combination of psychological manipulation, intimidation, gang rape, sodomy, beatings, deprivation of food & sleep, cutting off from family, friends and other sources of support, and threatening or holding hostage of victim's children.

    Purpose is to totally break down victim's resistance & ensure she will do anything she is told
  33. Turn Out
    used to describe being forced into prostitution & a person newly involved in prostitution; may also be used when referring to the first pimp a prostitute ever had
  34. Usually an individual who has earned the trust of the child - family, coach, teacher, romantic partner
    Who are the traffickers
  35. Relationship structure
    ___ may remain after exploitation and victim may identify pimp as a boyfriend
  36. Family Structure
    ___ may be established with other victims controlled by the pimp
  37. male perpetrators of domestic violence
    The methods and tactics of trafficking children may vary at different times; however, the intention is similar to
  38. control / compliance
    The tactics used for trafficking children are designed to maximize ___ and ___ of the victim.
  39. Recruitment
    Entice, small investment, bottom bitch

    Plays up freedom and the good life

    Overwhelms her with love, affection, special relationship
  40. Seduction
    Pedestal effect, past history, deepest desires and aspirations

    Selling the dream

    Mock incest-daddy, special time together

    Emotional dependence
  41. Isolation
    Under exploiter's constant watch

    Pimp provides for your basic needs - the real "debt" begins

    Girl takes on new identity/name
  42. Coercion
    Threats, emotional blackmail, investment payback

    Use past history and deepest desires
  43. Intermittent Violence
    Uses violence, love, affection, attention to control, manipulate

    Gives and withholds purposefully
  44. Pimp Stick
    a coat hanger that's been unraveled and doubled over; occasionally the pimp puts heats it on a stove to increase the degree of pain
  45. Confinement
    use torture practices by locking them into closets, trunks of cars, or rooms for indeterminate amounts of time
  46. Re-Naming
    offering nicknames, street names both for endearment and to erase former identity
  47. Creating Dependence
    instruct the prostitute how to talk, walk, what to wear, when to eat, when to sleep, where to sleep
  48. Forced sexual education
    inducement of viewing pornography to learn how to have sex
  49. Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking
    ____ as defined by Federal Law is a severe form of trafficking in persons
  50. False Promises
    use of sophisticated methods of manipulating the human desire to hope through use of lies about a better future life ... children especially vulnerable to this
  51. Trauma Bonding
    the child experiences a strong link to the pimp/exploiter based in what the child perceives as an incredibly intense or important relationship, but one in which there has been an exploitation of trust or power
  52. Emotional Bonding
    a learned tactic for survival and can be common between exploited children and the exploiter
  53. Basic Necessities




    Parenting Skills

    Life Skills

    Job Skills



    Juvenile Justice

    Foster Care
    Intervention Targets
  54. Juvenile Court Act 1899

    Indiana 1903

    ___ created juvenile court

    Separate juvenile court established in ___

    Provided for a system of ___
  55. parens patriae orientation
    right to intervene in child's best inrerest in early juvenile system
  56. rehabilitative
    Early juvenile courts considered to be more ___ than adult courts
  57. lawyers


    due process
    Early juvenile system

    ___ not considered a necessity.

    Children considered more amenable to ___

    Sometimes charged without ___
  58. Adjudicated Delinquent
    a Convicted Juvenile
  59. cocaine
    Peak crime in 90s due to ___
  60. Older boys (adolescence)
    Most juvenile arrests are of ___
  61. Status Offenses
    specific to juveniles and are not considered crimes (i.e. truancy, out past curfew)
  62. Juvenile court
    For status offenses, the ___ has exclusive original jurisdiction
  63. Delinquent offenses
    Criminal acts committed by a juvenile
  64. juvenile court
    For delinquent offenses, the ___ has exclusive original jurisdiction
  65. Schall v. Martin

    - parens patriae orientation
    Court ruling in the case of ___ v. ___ allows preventative detention to protect child from themselves

    (aka ____)
  66. Court ordered


    If juvenile is in danger
    Juveniles are taken into custody if ___
  67. bail
    Juveniles are not entitled to ___
  68. contested hearing
    juvenile trial
  69. admit/deny
    Plea options for juveniles
  70. Custodial Interrogation
    when jurisdictions require that parents/guardians be present during an interrogation
  71. formal and informal diversion
    community programming
  72. secure and non-secure
    two forms of detention
  73. petition
    a juvenile "charge"
  74. petition
    If a case is not diverted, then a ___ is filed
  75. Delinquency Hearing

    juvenile due process (Gault)

    - no constitutional right to ___ trial
  76. Dispostition
    Juvenile sentence
  77. juvenile probation
    the most common disposition
  78. age-specific
    Prostitution is NOT an ___ crime
  79. 6 months
    The biggest effect of therapy is seen after ____
  80. - deal with overwhelming emotion

    - to feel a connection with their body
    People will resort to "self injurious behavior" (SIB) in order to ____
  81. National Center for Victims of Crime
    ___ funds most victims for counseling  - grant money from state/county
  82. Jurisdiction
    Whoever has ___, has the right to make decisions ... usually geographic
  83. 21

    Juvenile court can retain jurisdiction til age ___, or age ___ if it's a sex offense
  84. Kent v. U.S. 1966
    Case that found that Juveniles were not getting due process ...

    - now there is a hearing BEFORE judicial transfer to criminal (Adult) court

    - court provides guidelines (factors to consider before transfer)
  85. Guidelines
    factors to consider before transfer of a juvenile to criminal court

    - provided by the court
  86. re Gault (1967)

    "Kangaroo Court"
    In ___ (AKA ___)

    - written notice of charges

    - Juveniles have the right to a lawyer

    - Able to invoke privilege against self-incrimination (use the 5th Amendment)

    - Able to confront and cross-examine witness
  87. Winship

    beyond a reasonable doubt
    Burden of Proof (aka ___) for juveniles: ___
  88. Breed v. Jones
    case that gave juveniles "double jeopardy protection"

    - cannot be tried as a juvenile and adult
  89. McKeiver
    states that juveniles have no constitutional right to a jury trial
  90. 8 years old
    If a minimum age to retain jurisdiction is not stated, it is assumed to be age ___
  91. Moffitt Research - Developmental Theory
    ___ research - ___ theory

    (LCP) vs.

    adolescent-limited (AL) offenders
  92. difficult temperament in infancy
    Earliest signs of delinquency usually ___ in/during ___
  93. Life-Course-Persistent (LCP)
    path begins at an early age and persistent into adulthood

    - aggressive and violent crimes

    -ADHD, neurological problems

    - Less social skills

    - Problems date back to early years
  94. Adolescent-Limited (AL)
    path begins around puberty and ends in young adulthood (more common and less serious than the other path)

    - drug/alcohol offenses, theft, status offenses

    - have better social/ interpersonal skills
  95. Coercion Developmental
    Major contributors to early-onset delinquency according to the ___ Model.

    - poor parental monitoring of child activities

    - disruptive family transition (divorce)

    - inconsistent parental discipline
  96. coercive behaviors

    aversive parental discipline and authority
    Key predictor of early-onset offending is family environment in which child learns to use ___ (temper tantrums/whining) to escape ___ and ___.
  97. inattentional

    bounce off the walls
    Girls with ADHD tend to be more ___

    Boys with ADHD tend to ___
  98. age-inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
    Symptoms of ADHD
  99. physical

    characteristic patterns of behavior
    ADHD has NO distinct ___ signs - it's identified through ___, which may vary among children.
  100. Attentional Capacity
    amount of information we can remember and attend to for a short time (i.e. ph#, directions)
  101. Selective Information
    ability to concentrate on relevant stimuli and not be distracted
  102. Sustained Attention
    ability to maintain persistent focus over time or when fatigued
  103. Primary Attention Deficit
    the inability to sustain attention, particularly for repetitive, structured, and less enjoyable tasks
  104. Hyperactivity-Impulsivity
    may be thought of as a single dimension and/or as part of a more fundamental deficit in behavioral inhibition
  105. Hyperactive-Impulsive
    ___ behavior is excessively energetic, intense, inappropriate, and not goal directed
  106. motor activity

    cognitive impulsivity, behavioral impulsivity
    Children with ADHD show more ___ than other children, especially in the classroom when asked to sit

    - can display ___, ___, or both
  107. Cognitive Impulsivity
    disorganized, hurried thinking
  108. Behavioral Impulsivity
    acting without considering consequences, difficulty inhibiting behavior responses
  109. - difficulty stopping on-going behavior

    - inability to resist immediate gratification

    - difficulty waiting for turn, interrupting others

    - minor/serious accidents
    Impulsive behaviors include
  110. 7
    ADHD shows early in childhood - before age ___
  111. boys
    ADHD - ___ are overrepresented
  112. biological predisposition vs. environmental factors
    Cause of ADHD is not clear: ___ predisposition v. ___ factors
  113. ADHD

    - antisocial
    - conduct disorder
    ___ is a disorder of interpersonal relationships and may include:

    - ___ disorders (and ___ diagnosis)
  114. Oppositional Defiant Disorder
    A. a pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior lasting at least 6 months

    B. behaviors DO NOT occur exclusively during Psychotic/Mood Disorder

    C. Criteria are not met for Conduct Disorder or (if over 18) for Antisocial Personality Disorder
  115. Conduct Disorder
    a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms/rules are violated within the last 12 months

    • - aggression to people and animals
    • - destruction of property
    • - Deceitfulness or theft
    • - Serious violations of rules
  116. Childhood-Onset Type
    onset of at least one criterion characteristic of Conduct Disorder prior to age 10

    more likely to be boys


    persist in antisocial behavior over time
  117. Adolescent-Onset Type
    absence of any criteria characteristic of Conduct Disorder before age 10

    just as likely to be boys as girls

    do not show the severity/psychopathology of the alternative onset

    less likely to commit violent offenses or persist in their antisocial behavior over time
  118. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
    Although most cases of Conduct Disorder are preceded by ___ and most children with CD continue to display ___ symptoms, most children with ___ do NOT progress to more severe CD.
  119. Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD)
    a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of the rights of others, as well as engagement in multiple illegal acts
  120. 40%
    As many as ___% of children with Conduct Disorder (CD) later develop Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD).
  121. intelligence (IQ)
    ___ plays a role in the development of delinquent behavior

    - Lower ___ leads to higher rate of delinquency
  122. APD and aggression
    ____ and ___ linked to low language proficiency

    - delayed development increases stress and frustration

    - tend to use more physically aggressive tacticts
  123. self regulation
    As ___ develops, aggression will decrease
  124. Self-Regulation Skills
    capacity to control and alter one's behavior and emotions

    - taught by parents
  125. Executive Functions
    deliberate problem solving and the regulation of one's thoughts, actions, and emotions

    - related to the concept of self-regulation
  126. genetic
    Definite ___ component to "temperament."
  127. - Dopamine
    - Serotonin
    - Frontal Lobes
    Brain chemistry in relation to criminal behavior

    • -
    • -
    • -
  128. Androgen/ Testosterone

    Hormones in relation to criminal behavior
  129. Judicial, Legislative, Prosecutorial
    Three main types of Juvenile Waivers (transfers)
  130. Judicial Waivers
    aka: bind-over, transfer, discretionary waiver

    Focus is on offender and Potential for treatment

    Judges use discretion to send juveniles to adult court for adjudication
  131. violent crimes

    Original drive behind waivers: ___

    Most were waived for ___/___ offenses.
  132. Kent v. U.S.
    Factors judges use to determine whether to transfer or amenability to treatment based on ___ v. ___
  133. state

    preponderance of the evidence
    Judicial Transfer: Burden of Proof

    The ___ always has the burden and it's generally ___ (some states use clear and convincing)
  134. Preponderance of the Evidence
    standard of proof requiring that a judge or jury find that the plaintiff's version of the facts is more probable than not 

    the weight of the evidence is greater for one side than the other (51+%)
  135. clear and convincing evidence
    standard of proof requires that the truth of issue be highly probable
  136. Legislative Waiver
    aka automatic waiver, mandatory waiver

    focuses on offense

    Juveniles automatically transferred based on age and specific offense

  137. Juvenile


    Legislative Waiver procedure

    - ___ receives case initially

    - ___ hearing to determine if legislative (mandatory) waiver applies (probable cause) ... ___ issues are NOT presented

    - issue a ___ order
  138. Prosecutorial Waiver
    aka direct file, concurrent jurisdiction (waiver) - does NOT exist in Nevada

    - occurs when state has concurrent jurisdiction statutes: prosecutor decided to file juvenile/criminal court
  139. judicial

    detailed criteria

    In Prosecutorial Waivers

    - generally NOT subject to ___ review

    • - generally NOT required to be based on ___
    • ... offense seriousness usually less than ___ for statutory exclusion, mandatory, presumptive waiver
  140. 16 y.o. - robbery, arson, murder/ anything associated with a gang

    14 - anything punishable by death/life imprisonment
    Prosecutorial Waiver in CA

    If a juvenile who is 16 y.o. ...

    If a juvenile who is 14 y.o. ...
  141. Statutory Exclusion
    removes certain offenses or age/offense/prior record combination from juvenile court jurisdiction

    - Juvenile court has NO involvement! Case goes straight to criminal court
  142. juvenile

    In statutory exclusion, if a prosecutor charges a juvenile with an excluded offense, case is filed in ___ court (but a ___ waiver may be used by juvenile)
  143. Reverse Waiver

    can petition to have Statutory Exclusion case moved to juvenile court

    ___ bears burden of proof to establish best interest of public or juvenile.
  144. Juvenile

    In NV, a reverse waiver may be used if a child shows exceptional circumstances and ___ court must determine that said circumstances warrant ___ of the case
  145. Once and Adult/Always an Adult
    if a juvenile started in or transferred into criminal court, they are forever excluded from the juvenile court.

    - most states require a felony conviction.

    - CA does NOT require any conviction

    - NV: must be convicted of a criminal offense
  146. juvenile court
    Juveniles in ___ are

    • - rearrested less often
    • - at a lower rate
    • - after more time elapsed
  147. mitigating
    Once transferred into the adult system, the age of juveniles becomes a ___ factor.

    - they are not given a stiffer penalty in adult court
  148. longer
    Juvenile in juvenile court may face ___ confinement that offender tried in adult court; and the ___ a juvenile is incarcerated, the more likely they are to recidivate
  149. - amenability to rehabilitation

    - risk of dangerousness

    - maturity/sophistication
    Role of psychologists in Juvenile court assessments -

    • -
    • -
    • -
  150. Sexually Violent Predator Civil Commitment Laws (SVP laws)
    laws allowing for the civil commitment of individuals who are found likely to commit future acts of sexual violence after incarceration
  151. Mental Abnormality
    congenital or acquired condition affecting the emotional or volitional capacity which predisposes the person to commit sexually violent offenses in a degree constituting such a person a menace to the health and safety of others
  152. Kansas v. Hendricks
    ___ challenged the SVP laws

    Kansas Supreme Court invalidated act

    U.S. Supreme Court reversed the decision
  153. civil commitment of sex offenders
    special issue in Kansas v. Crane
  154. Kansas v. Crane
    clarification of Hendricks

    need demonstration of some mental illness, abnormality, disorder

    need demonstration of some inability to control
  155. deference to mental health officials warranted; public needs protection
    Praise of Kansas cases
  156. too much power to the state; no provision for treatment
    Criticism of Kansas cases
  157. Involuntary Civil Commitment
    the decision to place someone in a psychiatric facility against their will
  158. notice

    right to be heard

    Procedures required for "due process" of Involuntary Civil Commitment

    - Last quarter of 20th Century
  159. 3 day

    2 week

    3-6 month
    Involuntary Civil Commitment -

    • Typical Statute:
    • ___ emergency detention and evaluation; ___ intensive treatment; long term ____
  160. 48


    drug stabilization
    Involuntary Civil Commitment

    • Short Term:
    • ___ hours; then a ___ is needed; ___ is common
  161. indefinite confinement

    6 month
    Involuntary Civil Commitment

    • Long Term:
    • ___ unconstitutional; typical ___ review
  162. adversarial hearing
    ___ needed for Long Term involuntary civil commitment
  163. clear and convincing evidence
    standard of proof needed for Involuntary Civil Commitment

    ___ of mental disorder and dangerousness to self or others
  164. Risk Assessment
    Researchers preferred term for Dangerousness
  165. least restrictive alternative
    When looking at Grave Disability, ____ not always considered
  166. circumvention
    Civil Commitment Proceedings

    ___ of required procedures not uncommon
  167. poorly prepared/adversarial

    deferred/discouraged/questioning witnesses

    least restrictive alternative

    perfunctory/non existent

    advised of their rights
    Civil Commitment Proceedings - Problems

    Attorneys ___; not perform ___ roles

    Judges ____ to mental health recommendations or ___ attorneys from ___

    ___ not always considered

    Exams ___ or ___

    Respondents NOT ___
  168. lack of community options
    Civil Commitment Proceedings are cursory ... possibly due to ___
  169. deinstitutionalization
    caring for patients in the community
  170. grave disability
    ___ often seen in re-commitment proceedings for civil commitment
  171. "Duty to Protect" Laws

    Tarasoff v. Regents of UC Berkley

    Tarasoff Spirit
    laws that mandate psychotherapists to take "reasonable care" to protect their clients' identifiable potential victims

    Held in the case of ___

    Many clinicians accept the ___ Spirit
  172. Unstructured Clinical Judgment
    strategy for psychologists to predict future violence WITHOUT the guidance of any rules on how to collect and combine information (aka intuitive approach)

    - uses social history, interview, personal contacts, comment and recommendations by others, psychological testing
  173. Actuarial Method
    a method of prediction that uses relevant risk factors which are systematically combined (typically using a statistical equation) to calculate an estimate of the probability of future violence.
  174. Quinsey et al.
    strong preference for actuarial method
  175. Litwack and Schlesinger
    support for recognizing clinical judgement
  176. Structured Clinical Judgment (Hart et al.)
    supported by ___, ___ combines knowledge from clinical practice and empirical knowledge
  177. base rates
    the statistical prevalence of a behavior in a given group over a set period of time (one year)
  178. of groups

    base rates
    Actuarial method is based on statistics of ___

    - Also uses ___
  179. Clinical Method
    idiographic, qualitative approach (specific individual and subjective judgments)

    based on experience in working with group of clients

    - intuitive and subjective

    - courts generally responded better
  180. Actuarial Method
    nomothetic, quantitative approach (large groups and statistics)

    based on how groups of individuals with similar characteristics have acted in the past.
  181. low
    If you have a ___ base rate (i.e. 1%), it's difficult to predict behavior
  182. over-predict
    Even a good risk assessment will ___ people to be violent
  183. Dynamic
    ___ risk factors change over time - i.e. moods, attitudes, thought processes
  184. Stable
    ___ Dynamic risk factors change slowly over time
  185. Acute
    ___ Dynamic risk factors change more rapidly (i.e. intoxication)
  186. Static
    ___ risk factors are unchangeable (i.e. age, sex)
  187. Dynamic/Static

    ___ risk factors may predict recidivism as well as or better than ___ risk factors.

    ___ factors are a better predictor of recidivism for sex offenders
  188. Historical Clinical Risk Management Scheme - 20


    10, 5, 5
    a risk assessment tool which is a guided professional judgment instrument that helps clinicians estimate a person's probability of being violent based on 20 historical, clinical, and risk factors

    • - ___ historical
    • - ___ present clinical
    • - ___ future risk
  189. absent
    possibly/partially present
    definitely present
    In an HCR-20, each item is scored:

    0: ___

    1: ___

    2: ___
  190. Megan's Law
    requires states to make personal and private information about known sex offenders available to the public - "community notification"
  191. Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG)
    ____, created by Quinsey, is an actuarial risk assessment instrument constructed to improve predictive accuracy.

    - specifies 12 variables to predict violence

    - developed on a mentally ill Canadian criminal population to predict recidivism
  192. PCL-R
    ___ best predictor of violent recidivism - according to VRAG
  193. fundamental error of attribution
    Clinical predictions have an issue with ___; in that they explain behavior in terms of the person, limiting impact of environmental circumstances.
  194. SAVRY

    (Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth)

    historical, social/contextual, and individual/clinical

    low, moderate, high
    Risk assessment measure: ___

    12-18 y.o.

    - 24 items in 3 domains (?)

    - 3 level rating structure (?)

    - 6 protective factors - present/absent
  195. - more difficult to measure

    - contribute less to an accurate prediction

    - less well-studied

    - to be useful, require repeated meaurements
    reasons Dynamic and Risk Management factors are overlooked compared to historical risk factors

  196. active / dormant
    Sometimes psychiatric symptoms are ___, in that they are readily apparent in a person's thoughts and behaviors ... otherwise they may be ___.
Card Set
PSY 469 Final