Anatomy unit 3 part 2

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  1. What is afferent and efferent
    • afferent sensory
    • efferent is motor
  2. lumbar cistern
    contains the cauda equina formed by the dura mater
  3. spinal tap
    used to obtain CSF needle between L3 and L4 or L4 and L5
  4. mixed spinal nerves
    contains both afferent and efferent
  5. Dermatome
    Area of skin innervated by the cutaneous branch of a single spinal nerve
  6. Injury to musculocutaneous
    weakened forearm flexion and supination
  7. Injury to radial nerve
    inability to extend the wrist, wrist drop, inability to extend the forearm
  8. Injury to median nerve
    inability to flex 2nd and 3rd fingers, thenar function is weakened
  9. injury to ulnar nerve
    loss of hand muscles except thenar group
  10. CNS
    brain and spinal cord, dictates motor commands
  11. PNS
    • Cranial and spinal nerves
    • carry info to and from the spinal cord
  12. Somatic PNS
    voluntary, conducts impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscle
  13. Autonomic PNS
    involuntary control (visceral motor), controls heard, smooth smooth muscles, and glands
  14. Autonomic Sympathetic
    mobilizes body system during energy situation
  15. Autonomic Parasympathetic
    Conserves energy, promotes nonemergency function
  16. neurons
    excitable cells that transmit an electrical signal or action potential, do not replicate, and highly metabolic (oxygen and glucose)
  17. Multipolar neurons
    many processes, many dendrites
  18. Bipolar Neurons
    2 Processes, one from each side of the body, one dendrite and one axon
  19. Unipolar Neuron
    One process that divides sensory ganglion
  20. Schwann Cells
    Pearl like structure on the axon
  21. Axon hillock
    where axon starts
  22. What is neuroglia and what does it consist of
    • Supporting cells of cns
    • Astrocytes- exchange between capillary and neurons. control chemical environment and take up neurotransmitters
    • Microglia- monitor the health of neuron, phagocytic
    • Oligodendrocyte- supports and insulates the axon
    • Ependymal cells- helps form the cerebrospinal fluid
  23. What are the supporting cells of the PNS
    • Schwann- forms myelin sheath
    • Satellite- surround cellbody of neurons in ganglions, forms circle around cell body
    • ganglions- forms plexus
  24. Factors affecting conduction velocity of action potential
    • Axon Diameter
    • Myelin Sheath
  25. what is saltatory conduction
    movement of action potentials along the axons from one node of ranvier to the next
  26. nodes of ranvier
    space between each myelin sheath
  27. group a nerve fibers
    somatic sensory and motor fibers, super fast AP
  28. group B nerve fibers
    lightly mylinated,
  29. group c nerve fibers
    slowest conducting
  30. What do NA+ channels do for action potentials
  31. what do K+ channels do for action potentials
    hyperpolarization (gets it back to threshhold)
  32. what is continuous conduction
    NA+ and K+ jchannels open and close sequentially along the membrance
  33. Pre-synaptic neurons
    submits action potential to the synapse of another neuron
  34. Post-synaptic neurons
    receives action potential from synapse
  35. Glial Cells
    astrocytes absorbs K+ ions from neurons, recapture and recycles neurotransmitters
  36. What is electrical synapses
    gap junctions; found in brain, ion flow from one cell to another, not as much gain
  37. chemical synapses
    no physical contact between cells; no ion flow
  38. acetylcholine
    skeletal neuromuscular junction
  39. biogenic amines
    made from amino acids, biological clock and mood/behavior
  40. dopamine
    feel good, deficient parkinson and excess schizo
  41. epinephrine
    similar to norepinephrine
  42. norepinephrine
    sleep/wake, feeding, feelgood, attention
  43. Serotonin
    sleep/wake, appetite, mood regulation, deficient in depression
  44. Histamine
    wakefulness, appetite, learning and memory
  45. Amino Acids- GABA
    inhibitoy, inhibits postsynaptic to send AP
  46. Amino Acids- Glycine
  47. Amino acids- Glutamate
    excitatory/ causes AP
  48. Peptides- endorphines
    natural opiates; blocks pain inhibit substance
  49. Peptides- Substance P
    important mediator of pain transmission to PNS
  50. NO
    learning and memory, strengthening synapse formation
  51. ATP
    excitatory or inhibitory
  52. Excitatory post-synaptic potentials
    often located on dendrite
  53. Inhibitory post synaptic potentials
    cell body, open Cl- channels (Cl- enters cell and hyperpolarizes)
  54. temporal summation
    multiple impulses sent rapidly to post synaptic neuron
  55. spatial summation
    several pre-synaptic neurons send impulses to post synaptic simultaneously
  56. divergent circuits
    many action potential happen from one single input
  57. convergent circuit
    multiple input has one single output
  58. oscillating circuit
    AP goes round and round
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Anatomy unit 3 part 2
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