Motivation: Part 6

  1. self-conscious emotions
    • secondary emotions critical for the development of the self
    • social function (no survival function)
  2. requirements for self-conscious emotions
    • stable self-representation
    • able to focus attention on the self (this is me and communicate)
    • able to evaluate based on expectations
  3. shame
    • comes from sadness
    • more painful than guilt because involves the inherent self
    • experienced as shrinking, feeling small, worthless, or incompetent
    • creates motivational desire to hide, escape, or strike back
  4. guilt
    • comes from sadness
    • less painful than shame because it involves behaviours
    • experienced as tension, remorse, or regret
    • creates motivational desire to confess, apologize, or repair
  5. Process model
    • similar to attribution theory of emotions
    • primary appraisal: survival threatened? yes -> basic emotion, no -> step 2
    • step 2: is self-representation activated? no -> no emotion, yes -> step 3
    • step 3: goal congruence? no -> no emotion, yes -> step 4
    • step 4: attribution? external -> basic emotions (no control), public -> embarrassment, internal -> step 5
    • step 5: stable/controllable/global? no -> guilt/pride, yes -> shame/hubris
  6. Self-discrepancy theory
    • IM to achieve ideal self
    • when reality matches ideal self -> experience of gain and happiness
    • when reality does not match ideal self -> experience of shame, disappointment, and depression
    • EM to achieve ought self
    • when reality matches ought self -> experience of no loss and relaxation
    • when reality does not match ought self -> experience of fear, guilt, and anxiety'
  7. Social Development
    • after 3 (need self-representation)
    • body language is the first way to communicate that something they did was wrong
    • promote engagement: friendliness, guilt
    • promotes disengagement: pride
  8. Cultural Development
    • modifies cultural expression
    • eg. guilt and shame are experienced differently in collectivist cultures
    • modifies self-representation because in collectivist cultures others are integrated into the self
  9. Affective Forecasting
    • making predictions about future affective states to help make decisions
    • predictions based on hypothesized fulfillment of social or psychological needs
    • multiple types of errors can co-occurr
  10. valance predictions
    • which side of neutral an experience will be
    • usually accurate
  11. specific emotion predictions
    • generally good at guessing future individual emotions
    • less good at guessing future complex emotional blends
  12. intensity predictions
    • extent of emotional level in a future state
    • part of impact bias
  13. duration predictions
    • a guess at how long a future emotional state will last
    • part of impact bias
  14. Impact Bias
    • people have a tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of emotions for future events
    • applicable to positive and negative emotions
    • trying to counter can lead to a rebound effect
  15. steps of affective forecasting
    • representation of future event
    • assessment of potential emotional impact
    • make prediction
    • initial emotional experience
    • ongoing emotional experience
  16. miscronstrual problem
    a misrepresentation of what the future event is going to be like
  17. isolation effect
    focus only on the differences between two options for future courses of action without considering the similarities
  18. recall just the peak
    • when trying to predict future events, only remember the most intense parts of similar previous events and forget other details
    • affects predictions of type of emotion
  19. mental contamination
    forecast future emotional states dependent on your current feelings and concurrent thoughts
  20. vocalism
    forget to consider a future event in the context of other-events that will co-occur
  21. sense making process
    • forget that we have the ability to adjust and make any event seem ordinary
    • very quickly become accustomed to both positive and negative events
  22. immune neglect
    tendency to underestimate our strength and capacity to experience growth post-trauma
  23. correcting for impact bias
    • fix sources of error (cognitive repairs)
    • predict the average future feeling
    • take an observer's (vs. an actor's) point of view
  24. materialistic people and forecasting
    • overestimate positive feelings resulting from their decisions
    • extrinsic goals are highly valued
    • -> overestimate how increases in money will make them feel
    • don't learn from experience
  25. Forecasting errors typical of EM people
    • vocalism
    • isolation
    • ordination
    • recall bias
Card Set
Motivation: Part 6
self-conscious emotions, affective forecasting