CHW3M1 Unit 2 - Ancient Greece and Rome

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  1. Where did the Cretan (Minoan) civilization originate from and what is their name from?
    Minoans, from King Menes, originated from Asia Minor to Crete
  2. Recap the Minoan civilization
    After settlement, very prosperous with palaces and Script A and shit like a labyrinth, then they died at 1600 BC, then alive, and then died again at 1400 BCE because of fires FUCK U MYCEANEANS OR VOLCANO
  3. Why is Ancient Greece considered the birthplace of Western Civilization?
    First democracy!!!
  4. The first major power in 4500 BCE in Ancient Greece is
  5. When were the first Olympics?
    776 BCE
  6. What was the purpose of the Olympics?
  7. Were there flaws in Greek democracy?
    Yes, as only men and wealthy were cool
  8. What did Draco do for democracy?
    Codified Athenian Law for ALL THE CITIZENS = universal rights
  9. Who codified Athenian Law?
  10. Who led to universal rights?
    DRACOOOOOO ma main man
  11. What did Solon do for democracy?
    No more debt, let everyone in public office, Council of 400, very important as his reforms laid the foundation of DEMOCRACY!
  12. (Greece) Who cancelled debts of slaves, let everyone in public office, and formed the Council of 400?
  13. What did Pisistratus do for democracy?
    • Divided Africa and gave it to the landless
    • Established system of state loans 
    • Created 30 judges superseding authority
  14. Who divided Africa, established a system of state loans, and created 30 judges superseding the authority?
    Pisistratus [spell it]
  15. What did Cleisthenes do for democracy?
    • Council 500 - 10 tribes so everyone in Athenian society can participate 
    • Reforms to save citizens from tyrants
  16. Who created the Council 500 - 10 tribes so everyone in Athenian society can participate & reforms to save citizens from tyrants
    Cleisthenes (spell it)
  17. What four major people were important in the foundation of democracy?
    Draco, Solon, Pisistratus, and Cleisthenes
  18. What was the role of women in relation to democracy?
  19. True or false: Athenian legal system reflects direct democracy
  20. Was religion important in Greek lives? Why or why not? Where was religion?
    Yes - gods and goddesses controlled everything. Each home had a Greek god. However, religion was more based on preference; Greeks were more scientifical
  21. What did Greeks discover in relation to medicine, math, and astronomy?
    • Herbs, drugs, ointments, well health man u dun need no god
    • Pi, geometry
    • Solar year of 364 days of 12 months
  22. True or false: Romans created he first calender system/solar year
  23. Summarize the Illiad!
    • paris = priam king of troy vs menalaus = agamemnon king of greece
    • Agamemmnon stole girlz and then a plague was like no so he gave her back and steals achilles' gal so then achilles vs agamemnon
    • patroklos dies for achielles and achilles is like wow fuck you guys and kills hektor 
    • funerals guise!!!
  24. What is the order of philosophers?
    Socrates, Plato, Aristotle [all students of each other aw cuties]
  25. What is Socrates do?
    • ugly guy made the Socratic method - question ALL THE THINGS!
    • people can know what is true and good if people shown right thing to do aw 
    • soul is a quality that makes us individual
    • died of atheism and hemlock

    question good souls
  26. Questioned all things, people can know what is true and good if shown right thing, soul quality - WHO IS DIS PHILOSOPHER
  27. What did Plato do?
    • Wrote Dialogue and Republic outlining the ideal state guided by four basic virtues: love, wisdom, courage, and moderation
    • Made the Academy
  28. Made the Academy and wrote the Dialogue and the Republic: WHO'S THAT POKEMON?
    it's PLATO
  29. What did Aristotle do?
    • believed reality existed in objects [animism]
    • Wrote Ethics and Politics - we learn so by doing virtuous things with practice & what makes a government good or bad
    • Founded biology
    • Established school in Lyceum
    • Expanded on scientific method
  30. Who founded biology?
  31. Who expanded on the scientific method?
  32. Name the three Persian Wars
    Marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis
  33. What happened in the Marathon War?
    • Persians sailed south to Marathon
    • Athenians sent a professional messenger to Sparta running for four days for help. He came back and said Spartans would come after full moon
    • So then Athenians went to Marathon to meet with Persians with the help of the Plataea
    • Greeks charged at Persians and cut them
  34. What happened in the Thermopylae war?
    • Xerxes crossed Hellespoint
    • Greeks unprepared but made 200 ships and their strategy was to defend themselves against Persian invaders.
    • Spartan army held pass until full Greek army arrived
    • Greek shepherd was a snake to Xerxes and showed them a mountain path around Thermopylae
  35. What happened in the Salamis war?
    • 300 Greek ships at Salamis vs 600 Persian ships 
    • Greeks swift and won
  36. What is Sparta?
    An important city state in Greece
  37. Sparta had how many kings?
  38. What were the three classes in Sparta?
    • Citizens (only men, but women had more freedom here than anywhere else)
    • Immigrants
    • Slaves
  39. What was valued in Sparta?
    Being trained to be a soldier
  40. What made the Golden Age of Classical Greece?
  41. What caused the Peloponnesian War? (i.e. what reasons were the rivalry between Athens and Sparta?)
    • Athens tried expanding the Empire in Central Greece, Sparta's power base
    • Athens blocked cities from trading at Athenian ports
    • Sparta ruled by Aristocrats, while Greece was democratic

    Athens is a hog and government differences
  42. Who won in the Peloponnesian War?
  43. Why did Sparta win against Athens in the Peloponnesian War?
    • Plague killed 1/3 of people
    • Spartans allowed themselves with Sicilians and Persians
    • Sparta stopped grain from reaching Athens
  44. Who was Alexander the Great's father?
    King Phillip II
  45. What did Alexander the Great do?
    He conquered a lot of land
  46. What was Alexander the Great's army like?
    With an army of 30 000 foot solider and 5 000 cavalry (small) - he took everyone.
  47. Outline Alexander the Great's route to success
    • Granicus River vs. Persians
    • Western Asia
    • Mediterrean
  48. Why was Alexander the Great so great?
    Instead of enslaving them, he made people pay homage to him to sustain the empire and know the culture
  49. Who was Pericles?
    A politician who made a cool speech
  50. What was Pericles' speech about?
    Extolled virtues of Athenian life and highlighted all that is good about Athens
  51. Who were the Etruscans?
    Civilization that founded Rome in northern parts of Italy when Greek colonized southern portion
  52. What civilization lied in the northern part of Italy?
  53. What are frescoes
    Wall paintings
  54. Etruscan language
    Adopted Greek alphabet to their alphabet, creating Latin
  55. Etruscan military
    • Expected to serve in army when needed 
    • Compulsory military training with weapons provided by Rome
  56. Who founded Rome/first king of the Etruscans
  57. Who is Romulus
    • First king of Rome, has a twin named Remus, raised by wolves
    • Committed fratricide over who was gonna king
  58. Who is the last Etruscan king
    • L. Tarquinine Superbus, aka rebel
    • He raped Lucretia, which then sparked the need of a Roman Republic
  59. Who is L. Tarquinine Superbus?
    The last Etruscan king who raped Lucretia U BUTT
  60. Who is Lucretia
    girl who got raped and sparked the Roman Republic
  61. What contributions did the Etruscans have?
    • Aqueducts
    • Harpoon
    • Urban drainage system
    • Walled cities
    • Metal
  62. Why did the Roman Republic fail? (5)
    • Government failed to provide grants for soldiers
    • Leaders plunge Rome
    • Internal, Italian wars
    • Dominant external power of Carthage (Punic Wars)
    • Renewed class warfare

    • Soliders no grant
    • Bad leaders
    • Italian Wars
    • Punic Wars
    • Class warfare
  63. What is the story of Romulus?
    • Romulus wanted to be king!!! but he had a dumb brother named Remus GRRRRRR.
    • When they were just kids they floated along the Tiber River to get away from crazy uncle  Amuliuswho wanted them dead
    • Basket went to Palestine where they were raised
    • They argued and Romulus won and that's how Rome was founded!!!!!
  64. What is a republic?
    Elected representative votes for you (res publica)
  65. Why did a Republic form?
    Discontent of the tyrannical Etruscan monarchy
  66. In the Roman Republic, what was the name of the leaders replacing the aristocracy?
  67. What is the term for ordinary citizens voting?
    The Assembly
  68. What is the Assembly?
    Ordinary citizens voting
  69. Tension between what groups is in the history of the Roman Republic?
    Patricians and plebeians
  70. What are the Twelve Tables?
    • Codified Roman laws to break patrician and upper class monopolization of laws
    • Basic legal procedures
  71. What Roman law was codified?
    The Twelve Tables
  72. Who made concrete?
  73. What was the first Punic war?
    • Rome vs. Sicily, Carthage, and Syracuse 
    • Rome wins and adds Syracuse and Sicily and defeat Carthage
    • Carthage goes for Spain instead
  74. Rome vs. Sicily, Carthage, and Syracuse 
    Rome wins and adds Syracuse and Sicily and defeat Carthage
    First Punic War
  75. What is the second Punic war?
    • Hannibal takes big journey with 36 000 troops and 37 elephants and conquers Italian peninsula to get back at Rome
    • Four great battles with Roman losses
    • Rome attacked Carthage again before Hannibal arrived and peace treaty but then Carthage is like no and then Rome attacked again
  76. Hannibal's big journey, Carthage pays to fix stuff
    Second Punic War
  77. What is the third Punic War?
    • Carthage insults Roman
    • Rome invades and burns things to the ground and steals 
    • Carthagian Holocaust; annihilated culture 
    • Survivors would be Roman slaves
  78. Carthagian Holocaust
    Third Punic War
  79. Name Roman Victories
    • Unification of Italy
    • Defeats Carthage, thus giving Rome control of North Africa & provinces in Spain
    • Macedonia and Greece conquered
    • Pergamum province of Asia Minor
    • Southern Gaul conquered

  80. What are some issues in the Roman Republic?
    • Patricians vs plebians
    • Roman citizenship
    • Bad leaders
    • Poor want rights
  81. How is the Roman Senate elected?
    300 members chosen from aristocracy
  82. Who were citizens in Rome?
    Adult male landowners
  83. How did Rome become an Empire?
    • After the Punic Wars, Rome was very imperialistic - control over foreign lands, evident in all the conquered lands. The gap between the rich and the poor widened to corruption and riots. They needed social and political reforms
    • First people to try were the Gracchi brothers, Tiberius and Gaius. Senate no like, bye bye
    • Julius Caesar came and forced to be dictator after defeating Pompey. Made many reforms like giving ppl outside of Italy to be citizens and solidier's pay
    • Octavian and Antony avenged his death. Octavian and he is now Augustus. First emperor
  84. What did Julius Caesar do?
    • Force himself to be dictator
    • Gave people in other provinces outside Italy citizenship
    • Increased soldier's pay
  85. What did Augustus do?
    • Built stable government for empire
    • Ordered a census for fair taxes
    • Share control over provinces of Senate
  86. Built stable government for empire
    Ordered a census for fair taxes
    Share control over provinces of Senate
  87. Force himself to be dictator
    Gave people in other provinces outside Italy citizenship
    Increased soldier's pay
    Julius Caesar
  88. What did the Gracchi brothers do?
    • Enforced power between plebians and patricians
    • Redistributing land
    • Free monthly supply of grain 
    • Proposed new colonies for resettlement in Capua, Taranto, and Carthage
    • Give rights to non-Romans
  89. Enforced power between plebians and patricians
    Redistributing land
    Free monthly supply of grain 
    Proposed new colonies for resettlement in Capua, Taranto, and Carthage
    Give rights to non-Romans
    Gracchi brothers
  90. What is Epicureanism?
    • Roman philosophy in the Republican era by Epicurus
    • Advocated pursuit of happiness, pleasure, and absence of pain - one naturally pursuits such things and you can't avoid pain by being selfish
    • World is made of atoms and when you die, atoms are released
  91. What is Stoicism?
    One need not worry but to accept whatever life provides
  92. CAUSE AND EFFECT: Romans conquered Italian peninsula
    Romans wants to expand
  93. CAUSE AND EFFECT: Romans invade Sicily
    First Punic War
  94. CAUSE AND EFFECT: Hannibal attacked Saguntum
    Saguntum fell, second Punic war
  95. CAUSE AND EFFECT: Hannibal got to Italy
    Recruited more men
  96. CAUSE AND EFFECT: Scipio conquered Spain for Rome
    North Africa is next >:)
  97. CAUSE AND EFFECT: Hannibal defeated
    Carthage gave up control of Spain
  98. CAUSE AND EFFECT: Carthage rebelled against Rome
    Rome destroyed once and for all in third Punic War
  99. Who were considered as condemned criminals?
  100. What happened to condemned criminals in the gladiator arena?
    They entered the arena weaponless
  101. What happened to criminals who didn't commit a capital crime?
    Sent to gladiator school, ludi
  102. What is ludi?
    Private gladiator school
  103. Roman citizens known as infamus sold themselves to _______ (gladiator trainers), and were known as _________.
    lanistae, auctorati
  104. Where is a famous gladiator school?
  105. What's a word for gladiator games?
  106. What were gladiator games used for, asides from funerals?
  107. What was the format of the gladiator game?
    • Editor [sponsor of games] holds parade with combantants
    • Mock fights
    • Animal displays
    • Execution of criminals of heinous crimes
    • Individual gladiatorial combat
  108. True or false: gladiators were killed
    False; expensive
  109. Where were gladiator battles?
  110. Tiberius
    • Followed Augustus' policies
    • Held treason trials
    • Public assemblies to approve Senate
  111. Caligula*
    • Sexual
    • No respect of Senate
    • Pardoned political prisoners
    • Treasury to build lavish projects
  112. Claudias
    • Built stuff
    • Extended Roman citizenship
  113. Nero*
    • Great Fire
    • Force people to listen to his concerts
    • Plot mum's murder
    • No war except for defense
  114. Trajan*
    • Non-Italian emperor
    • Built stuff 
    • Welfare
    • Secret service
    • Financial subsides for everyone
  115. Diocletian
    • Divided Rome
    • Promote unity of Christianity and Judaism
  116. Why were Christian persecuted in Rome?
    Christians used as scapegoat for a great fire destroying much of the city
  117. What are factors determining social status in Rome?
    • Born a free man/citizen/slave
    • Wealth
  118. Why is family a foundation of Roman society?
    Family status & prestige marked an individual's place in society
  119. Why did the Roman Empire fall? (3)
    • 1. Diocletian divided Rome into two, having Rome no longer the capital of Empire and Rome lost power
    • 2. Christianity
    • 3. Bad emperors; barbarians overthrew government
  120. Julius or Augustus?
    • He wanted to rebuild temples and other public facilities, instituted civil service, peace, resdistributed provinces, allowed Senate control with less military right
    • Census for fair taxing
  121. Roman Architecture
    Fusion of Greek style and Roman innovation
  122. What led to the acceptance of Christianity all over Roman Empire?
    Edith of Milan, Constatine
  123. Greek art
    Realistic, lifelife
  124. What is pax romana?
    200 years of peace and stability in Rome
  125. What was the temple in Athens that was also considered to be a symbol of the city?
  126. Parthenon
    temple in Athens that was also considered to be a symbol of the city
Card Set
CHW3M1 Unit 2 - Ancient Greece and Rome
For every card, state which civilization it relates to (i.e. Greek, Roman)
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